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澳大利亚代写assignment:生物生态学理论

生物生态学理论除了关注这些系统之间的相互联系外,还关注儿童在其中发挥作用的多个系统、环境和上下文。这些系统是不可分割的,并嵌入在一个相互影响的框架中。主要的和直接的系统是微系统。儿童生活中主要的微系统是家庭和学校。微系统关注的是儿童与当前生态系统和环境(如家庭或教室)之间的关系。微系统影响的一个例子可能是孩子在家里的学习,比如和父母一起阅读或帮助父母做饭。家庭环境中的经历影响着孩子们在课堂上的行为方式(Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2007)。这些微系统之间的相互联系代表着中系统,它通过关系、交流模式和其他双向影响影响着孩子,比如在家庭作业和孩子在学校的学业上得到父母的帮助。下一个系统是外系统。这一制度是由缺少子女但又影响子女的情况构成的,例如父母的工作类型、可用时间、失业。外系统与那些孩子没有直接参与的事件相关,比如来自其他环境的影响,比如父母工作环境支持他们参与学校活动的方法。最后一个系统是宏观系统,它与综合了所有其他系统和子系统的整体文化或亚文化模式和力量相关,如联邦政策(例如,不让一个孩子掉队),它影响学校课程、家庭作业和家庭学校实践(Bronfenbrenner, 1977;Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2007)。因此,除了生物成熟之外,被认为与人类发展进程有关的环境,不仅限于该主题的直接背景,而且包括若干不同层次的相互联系的结构。根据Bronfenbrenner(1998)的研究,儿童需要发展一个或多个成年人的稳定参与,包括注意力和与儿童的联合活动(护理和联合活动)。从这个意义上说,孩子们需要通过建立一种强有力的情感关系来进行共同的活动,以提供一个平衡的发展。

澳大利亚代写assignment:生物生态学理论

The bioecological theory is concerned with the multiple systems, environments and contexts in which a child function, besides being concern about the interconnections among those systems. These systems are inseparable and embedded within a framework where they influence each other. The primary and immediate system is the microsystem. The main microsystem in children’s life are both the home and school. The microsystem is concerned with the child relationship with the immediate ecosystem and setting (e.g. home or classroom). An example of a microsystem influences could be the child’s learning within home, such as actions like reading with a parent or helping parents prepare a meal. Experiences in the home setting influences the way that children behave in the classroom (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2007). These interconnections among microsystems represent the mesosystem, which affects children through relationships, communication patterns, and other bidirectional influences such as receiving help from parents with the homework and the children’s academic functioning at school. The next system is the exosystem. This system is constituted by the situations that are falling short of the child, but they affect the child, such as the type of the parent job, time available, unemployment. The exosystem is related to those events that the child does not directly participate, such as influences from other contexts like the approach that parental work environments support their involvement in school. The last system is the macrosystem that is related to the overall cultural or subcultural patterns and forces that incorporate all other systems and subsystems, such as federal policy (e.g., No Child Left Behind), that influence school curriculum, homework, and home-school practices (Bronfenbrenner, 1977; Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2007). Hence, in addition to biological maturation, the environment, considered relevant to the process of human development, not limited to the immediate context of the subject, but encompasses a number of different levels, structures interconnected among themselves. According to Bronfenbrenner (1998), then, a child needs to develop a stable involvement of one or more adults, involving attention and joint activities-care and joint activity-with the child. In this sense, children need to have joint activities that provide a balanced development by establishing a strong affective relationship.

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