This leads to the third development which is the shift from a culture of testing to a culture of assessment. Gulikers (2008) further discussed that changing assessment practices is expected when perspectives on learning and instruction are changing, especially when we consider both the need for constructive alignment and the strong influence of assessment on learning and instruction. Standardized testing methods representative of the testing culture, such as multipleâ€choice tests, true/false items or shortâ answer tests were increasingly criticized for not being suitable for the changed educational goals aiming at competency development. Actually, standardized tests were considered inadequate for measuring higherâ order thinking skills and professional competence and were seen as stimulating students to adopt surface study strategies such as memorization and reproduction at the expense of deep study activities. On the other hand, Assessments representative of the assessment culture are expected to fit with the new educational goals as they aim at promoting learning and evaluating competency development. They stimulate students to integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes and use them to solve realistic professional tasks. Whereas standardized tests were decontextualized and focused on summative assessment of learning, new authentic assessments are integrated, contextualized, and more focused on formative assessment of learning. These characteristics of the assessment culture are more likely to fit with the new educational goal of stimulating students to become competent employees. The answer then to the questions of why and how authenticity, the main theme of this paper, fits in with all of these developments is that authenticity aims at decreasing the gap between the world of the school and the world of work.