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环境科学论文代写 环境影响评价的几个方面

环境科学论文代写 环境影响评价的几个方面

This is the unwritten law. There are no legal procedures that follow it. It is based on the precedent (the lady that types the discussion in a court case).

It is between individuals or individuals / CO. / Gaut.

Regulations (Reg), Bylaws. Provides guidelines to solving the problem.

Old Regulations

Environmental – NEMA – chapter 5

Reg R385 Regulations in terms of chapter 5 of the NEMA Act 1998 (2006)

Reg R386 (repealed 2010) – List of activities and competent authorities identified in terms of section 24 end 24D of NEMA (2006)

Reg R387 (repealed 2010) – List of activities and competent authorities identified in terms of section 24 end 24D of NEMA (2006)

New Regulations

NEMA and Amendments to NEMA

Reg R544 (18 July 2010 – Valid in August 2010) Listing notice 1 of Activities and Competent authorities identified in terms of Section 24 and 24 D

Reg R545 (18 July 2010 – Valid in August 2010) Listing notice 2 of Activities and Competent authorities identified in terms of Section 24 and 24 D

Reg R546 (18 July 2010 – Valid in August 2010) Listing notice 3 of Activities and Competent authorities identified in terms of Section 24 and 24 D

Reg R547 NEMA and Environmental Management Framework (EMF) regulations

(Meeuwis, J, 2010; Personal Communication)

The governmental department of agriculture rural development (G-DARD) will confirm if the EIA adhere to all of the needed specifications as listed in the legislations that is listed above. A record of decision (ROD) will accompany the decision made by GDAR.

When an EIA should be undertaken in South Africa

In the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) it is stated that before a project is undertaken, an EIA should be obtained and authorized (by GDAR) and a record of decisions must be provided. Therefore an EIA should be undertaken prior to the initiation of any project when it is known that there are significant impacts, or if uncertainties exist about the impacts. Listing notice 3 indicates that an EIA should be conducted when a project is undertaken in a sensitive or protected geological area.

EIA’s should be conducted according to the EIA regulations promulgated in July 2006. The previous regulations presented interpolation problems regarding the changing legal regime relating to mining and the environment. As a result the new laws stated in NEMA must be included in the EIA. These laws include the laws such as the Waste Management Act or Costal Management Act. Several changes were made to the procedural requirements for an EIA. Some of the listed activities were removed and others levels have changed. Some definitions were clarified so any uncertainties could be mitigated.

Some of the listing activities were repealed to clarify all the listed activities. Commencing August 2010 all EIA’s conducted must be done according to the amendments made to NEMA and the Regulations. EIA’s or projects started before August 2010 will still act in accordance with NEMA (2006).

Difference between Basic and Full Scale EIA in South Africa

There are two different types of EIA’s in South Africa, a basic EIA and a full scale EIA. The type of EIA that is required will be determined by the magnitude of the impacts on the environment.

Basic EIA

A basic assessment (basic EIA) should be conducted as listed in Listing Notice 1. A Basic assessment (basic EIA) is done for most projects since the environmental impacts minute or non-existent. A basic EIA report is a standard report that may be required by GDARD in terms of the EIA regulations of 2006, or 2010 as of August 2010.

Procedures for streamline application

Public participation where stakeholders are address.

A basic assessment report is written after the research is conducted.

The application is submitted containing the application form and the assessment report.

The application is checked.

After 14 days acknowledgement of receipt of application is done.

After 30 days a Response is received. Additional information, specialist studies or alternative sites may be requested. Or a rejection may be received. An EIA & Scoping may be required.

The authorisation is granted or refused.

After 10 days a notification of the decision is received.

The I & AP’s are notified of the decision.

The procedures are shown in the diagram (Figure 1). The competent authorities must strive to adhere to the timeframes.

Additional information

EIA & Scoping

Figure : Procedures for a Basic EIA

Full Scale EIA

A full assessment (full scale EIA) should be conducted as stated in Listing Notice 2. Few projects require a full scale EIA since these projects are considered to have significant adverse impacts on the; environment, endangered species, fragile or valued ecosystems (such as wetlands), biological diversity, air and water quality or the health, lifestyle or livelihood of the local community.

Procedures for streamline application

Submission of application containing application forms and the landowners consent.

Application is checked.

After 14 days acknowledgement of receipt of application is done.

Scoping is done. Public participation including the organisations of the state is addressed. Scoping report is written and any public comments are added.

Scoping report is submitted.

After 30 days a response will be received. Amendments may be required, or it may be rejected due to insufficient information or failure to follow guidelines. For both cases scoping needs to be redone. It can be accepted and the procedures may continue.

An EIA is prepared and EMP is drafted.

After 60 day a response will be received. The EIA may be rejected or amendments required then the EIA needs to be redone. The EIA may be accepted or specialist reviews required them the procedures may continue.

After 45 days a decision will be made.

After 10 days the applicant will be notified about the decision.

The I & AP’s are notified of the decision.

The diagram illustrates the procedures that are followed to conduct a Full Scale EIA (Figure 2). The competent authorities must strive to adhere to the timeframes.

Accepted

Rejected

Accepted

Rejected

Figure : Procedures for a Full Scale EIA

5 Photos of environmental impacts.

Figure : Entrance deepening of Durban Harbour

Figure : Entrance widening of Durban Harbour

Source: www.Transnet .co.za

Description: The side embankments are blasted away by means of dynamite. The seafloor is excavated by means of a ship with a scoop attached.

The Project: The widening and deepening of Durban harbour entrance. The project was for Transnet and Murray and Roberts did the construction work (Steenkamp, S, 2010)

Impacts: When the seabed is excavated, see life is affected because their natural habitat is destroyed. The water becomes cloudy due to the sand that is in the water thus sea life struggle to see. When the project was in progress old military equipment were found on the ocean floor. The sand that was removed was pumped onto the beaches children picked up shiny objects. These objects were live rounds. Thus the lives of the community were in danger.

How the impacts can be mitigated or rehabilitated: The material that was blasted away can be re used as aggregate. The sand that is excavated from the sea floor can be used to fill up the beaches that washed away. This can be done by filling geobags and placing them on the beaches as an embankment. The live rounds can be confiscated and the military equipment can be recovered if possible at a later stadium. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkLhJdlxEDn_K1q5oWZGXfbBOJje6SG72pw_lefQ833QQjgzw&t=1&usg=__n0ko9Cu31whrVXty9-67c-7p4rk=

http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTE2ZmBhJZoAbGh3h0x_d2yG9qyQGaHF4voss8cFZXcAeyhQa8&t=1&usg=__QtFm7xMZDvuqQgboBxxd-tqM8PU=

http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTE2ZmBhJZoAbGh3h0x_d2yG9qyQGaHF4voss8cFZXcAeyhQa8&t=1&usg=__QtFm7xMZDvuqQgboBxxd-tqM8PU=

Figure : Housing development

Source: Google Images – Construction

Description: A piece of land is excavated by earth moving equipment to make place for a housing development. The trees and grass and other florae were removed. Soil was removed to level the surface.

The Project: The project involves the construction of a housing development. It was needed to first clear the area of all the plant life.

Impacts: Florae that is needed for a healthy environment is removed. When trees and other florae are removed they do not provide oxygen anymore. The grass is removed that prevents erosion. A piece of undeveloped land was used thus destroying more of the ecosystem. Animals have a smaller space to live in because the development is removing their natural habitat.

How the impacts can be mitigated or rehabilitated: Some of the plants that are removed may be taken to a location, were erosion is occurring, and replanted to maintain their benefits to the environment. When construction is completed some of the plans may be rehabilitated back into their original environment. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkLhJdlxEDn_K1q5oWZGXfbBOJje6SG72pw_lefQ833QQjgzw&t=1&usg=__n0ko9Cu31whrVXty9-67c-7p4rk=

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkLhJdlxEDn_K1q5oWZGXfbBOJje6SG72pw_lefQ833QQjgzw&t=1&usg=__n0ko9Cu31whrVXty9-67c-7p4rk=

Figure : Construction of road in Game Reserve

Source: Google Images-road construction

Description: A path through the bush is cleared for the construction of a road. Trees and grass is removed. Florae that provide food and shelter for the animals are removed.

The Project: The project involves the construction of a road in a game reserve to create roads that lead to the campsites.

Impacts: As it is a game reserve animals can move freely. Thus by the construction of the road it increases the chances of the animals to be hit by a moving vehicle. Because the road will only be a sand road it increases the possibilities of erosion. With the construction of roads a higher noise levels are induced. This creates a higher stress level in the animals.

How the impacts can be mitigated or rehabilitated: http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkLhJdlxEDn_K1q5oWZGXfbBOJje6SG72pw_lefQ833QQjgzw&t=1&usg=__n0ko9Cu31whrVXty9-67c-7p4rk=

The erosion may be limited by paving the roads. To ensure that the animals are not harmed by speeding vehicles a speeding limit can be induced. The plants that were removed can be replanted on another location on the reserve to ensure that the plant life is not lost.

Figure : Old de Beers mining site in Kimberley

Figure : Old Mining Site in Kimberley

Source: www.kimberleysadiamonds.com

Description: Mining for diamonds in Kimberley. Great amounts of water are stored in ponds.

The Project: The project involves the re-mining of the old dumps of the closed Kimberley mines such The Big Hole, De Beers and Wesselton Mines (www.kimberleysadiamonds.com/aboutus).

Impacts: Great amounts of water are used for the purpose mining. Thus less drinking water is available. Drinking water that is available is contaminated by the toxic waste that is poured into the water. All of the needed minerals are removed from the soil. A great amount of earth is excavated and is exposed to erosion. Habitats are destroyed when space is created for the mine dumps and the sites were the diamonds are mined.

How the impacts can be mitigated or rehabilitated: http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkLhJdlxEDn_K1q5oWZGXfbBOJje6SG72pw_lefQ833QQjgzw&t=1&usg=__n0ko9Cu31whrVXty9-67c-7p4rk=

After mining the processed solids can be deposited back into the closed De Beers mine pit. Thus rehabilitation is assured and the environmental impacts of the past are reversed. Water can be re-used by installing pumping systems and a filtering system. After the mining project is completed the area can be rehabilitated and fauna and flora can be reintroduced to the environment.

Figure : De Hoop dam Construction in Limpopo

Source: Engineering News

Description: Great amounts of earth are removed to create a hole for the placement of the dam. The dam is constructed out of concrete thus the materials may be harmful to the environment.

The Project: The project involves the construction of the De Hoop dam in the Limpopo province. The project was undertaken to boost Limpopo’s economics and social development. The project also includes the installation of a pumping station that will provide water to the nearby towns (Prinsloo, L, 2008).

Impacts: An artificial dam is constructed thus the existing environment is destroyed. The runoff water Steelpoort River will be collected in the dam thus water will not be available downstream. The surrounding area was demolished.

How the impacts can be mitigated or rehabilitated: In the area that surrounds the dam trees and other flora can be planted. This will provide shade so the water will stay cooler and erosion will be impeded.

Conclusion

Development is needed in the times we are living in but it should be done with careful consideration of the impacts thereof. There should be a healthy balance between developed and undeveloped land.

It is our duty to protect and rehabilitate what’s left of our environment. It can be accomplished by doing proper EIA’s. If an EIA is done properly it can prevent projects that are harmful to the environment to occur. It can also limit the impacts of projects that do occur. Thus a piece of Mother Earths’ beauty will be seen by generations to come. An EIA should be clear and state all the necessary information. If an EAI is done incorrectly or relevant information is left out it will slow down the project and thus influence the schedule and budget.

We all want our environment, our save haven to be protected and in a virtuous condition. We want a place to escape to and unwind our tired minds. We want to hear the birds and smell the roses given to us by a loved one. If the entire natural environment is destroyed by construction or pollution, where can we go to?

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