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澳洲墨尔本代写作业:伊拉克战争

更深入地看密尔的“功利主义”的第五章,我们可以推断出许多与伊拉克战争有关的观点,以及这是一场“正义”战争还是一场道德战争。这一章的第一部分主要是描述性的,密尔开始说,纵观历史,接受效用的主要障碍之一是它不能容忍正义的假设。密尔在这一章中试图确定的是,行为的正义或不公正是否是一种固有的、与效用问题无关的东西。密尔首先试图明确正义的定义,提出一系列经常被描述为正义或不正义的事物。在试图定义正义,密尔认为很多因素,包括法律权利,剥夺的东西有人拥有道德权利,是否一个人获得其应得的东西,违反协议,不公正的关税特惠主义在不当的情况下,最后正义的平等为一个元素的概念。在本章主要描述的第一部分中,密尔反驳了功利主义反对正义的主张。他主要写的是正义的分类及其历史渊源,值得注意的是,穆勒并没有对正义的要求提出自己的猜想。在穆勒看来,正义与其说是一个理论模型,不如说是许多人所拥有的一种道德感。因此,在定义正义时,密尔研究了其他人用这个词表示什么。他的结论是,正义之所以存在,是因为人们相信它存在,正义的意义也正是人们认为正义的意义所在。从公认的对正义的理解开始,密尔设想了一套不同的关于正义理论的观点。随后,他又提出权利概念是二者的融合,这一观点是他通过对“完全义务”的主张而提出的。对密尔来说,一项权利暗示个人有一项合法的权利,即社会秩序保护他们免受任何亵渎。许多功利主义的鼓吹者对权利的概念一笔勾销,关于这个问题的许多争论都是围绕着权利是否确实存在而展开的,但密尔持不同的观点。

澳洲墨尔本代写作业:伊拉克战争

Looking at the fifth chapter of Mill’s ‘Utilitarianism’ in more depth, we can deduce many ideas that also relate to the war on Iraq and whether it is a ‘just’ or ethical war. The first section of the chapter is largely descriptive as Mill begins by saying that throughout history, one of the major obstacles to the reception of utility has been that it does not tolerate a supposition of justice. Whether or not the justice or injustice of an act is something inherent and separate from questions of utility is what Mill attempts to determine in the chapter.Mill commences by attempting to pinpoint the definition of justice, by coming up with a list of things that are often described as just or unjust. In trying to define justice, Mill considers many factors, including legal rights, deprivation of something someone has a moral right to possess, whether a person receives what they deserve or not, violating agreements, the injustice of preferentialism in improper situations, and finally the notion of equality as an element of justice. In the mainly descriptive first part of the chapter, Mill counters the assertion that utilitarianism is opposed to justice. He mainly writes about the classification of justice and its origins historically and it is also noteworthy that Mill does not offer his own conjecture about what is required for justice. From Mill’s point of view, justice is not a theoretical model so much as it is a feeling about morality that lots of people possess. As a result, in defining justice Mill studies what other people denote by the term. He concludes that justice exists for the reason that people believe it does, and it means what they consider it to mean. Beginning at the accepted understanding of justice, Mill envisages what associates a different set of ideas about the theory. Subsequently, he puts forward that they are amalgamated by the concept of rights, an idea he brings in through his claims about ‘perfect obligation’. For Mill, a right insinuates that an individual has a legitimate entitlement that the social order is to guard them against any desecration. Many advocates of utilitarianism write off the idea of rights, and many debates about the subject are based around whether rights do actually exist, but Mill held a different perspective.

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