Plato and Aristotle saw education as a prime source of the individual and the chief function of the state. It was a necessity to mankind and a remedy to all problems. Education should not only be in place when children are young, but it should be upheld until adulthood. Its goal was to educate men to be just and nurture the soul. In this paper, I will defend that though both philosophers believed that education will nurture the soul, they both had very different concepts of that theory. I will also examine the restrictions and regulations for all subjects that are to be taught in the city.
Plato was born in 427 B.C. into a wealthy family that played a prominent part in Athenian politics. At the age of twenty, Plato became a student of Socrates. After the execution of Socrates in 399 B.C., Plato went into exile  . He became unhappy with the corruption of society and sought to find a remedy. He concluded that society would not change until philosophers became rulers. In 386 B.C., Plato founded the Academy, an institution that taught subjects ranging from mathematics to astronomy  . Plato taught at the Academy until his death in 347 B.C. during the 4th and 5th century in Athens, all citizens were literate  . However, education was private and only the wealthy could afford it. This reason might explain Plato’s interest in expanding education to everyone including women in The Republic.
Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in Stagirus, a Greek colony. His father was a physician to the king of Macedonia. His father sent him to Athens to study philosophy in Plato’s Academy. When Plato died, he returned to Macedonia in 338 B.C to tutor Alexandra the Great. Shortly after Alexander conquered Athens, Aristotle returned to Athens to set up his own school called the Lyceum  . After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C., Athens rebelled against Macedonia’s rule. Because of his connections with Alexander, Aristotle fled to Chalcis where he soon died at the age of 62.