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澳洲西澳大利亚论文代写:文献的反映与经验

很明显,对文献的重视反映与经验,也就是实践有着密切的联系。Van Manen(1995)提出了一些关于实践反思在教学中的意义和位置以及在教学中知识与行动的关系的问题。他强调了反思性思维的重要性,反思性思维具有一系列复杂的认知和哲学上截然不同的方法和态度。他定义了不同的反思侧面,即对(过去)经验的回顾性反思,对(未来)经验的预期性反思,以及同时性反思。他提出的问题考虑到不同的情况,如新手教师,有经验的教师,并解释了不同的发现在不同的场合。洛厄里(2003)在她的文章中提到了反思性教学对于教师知识和研究成果的发展的重要性,这些研究成果将反思性思维定义为区分经验教师和新手教师的策略。她论述了教师反思的重要性;她介绍了促进反思性教学的三级计划,即理解反思性思维的重要性,实施反思性策略——反思性循环和发展反思性场所。

澳洲西澳大利亚论文代写:文献的反映与经验

It is evident that there is an emphasis on the literature that reflection is strongly related with experience, in other words practice. Van Manen (1995) raised some questions about the meaning and place of practical reflection in teaching and about the relation between knowledge and action in teaching. He underlined the importance of reflective thinking which has a complex array of cognitively and philosophically distinct methods and attitudes. He defined different reflection profiles namely retrospective reflection on (past) experiences, anticipatory reflection on (future) experiences, and contemporaneous reflection. He raised the questions considering different cases, such as for novice teachers, experienced teachers, and explains the different findings in different occasions.In her article Lowery (2003) mentioned the importance of reflective teaching in providing development in teacher knowledge and research results that defines the reflective thinking as distinguishing strategy between experienced and novice teachers. She discussed the importance of teacher reflection; she describes the three-level plan to promote reflective teaching, which are understanding the importance of reflective thinking, implementing reflective strategies – the reflective cycle and developing a reflective venue.

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