Marx and Engels mainly criticize Smith’s model of the division of labor by unveiling the alienation of workers from their products and the exploitation facing laborers in the capitalist market. Specifically, Marx and Engels demonstrate that instead of being the owners of products, workers are alienated from their products of labor in the capitalist economy. In this aspect, the division of labor proves exploitative for laborers in the capitalist market, which will lead to increased inequalities facing laborers instead of creating more job opportunities, freedom and autonomy for workers as highlighted by Smith. Meanwhile, Marx and Engels also points out that the division of labor does not lead to a widespread social opulence for all citizens, because workers are underrepresented in the distribution of social wealth, as the capitalists are able to appropriate the surplus value of labor.Marx and Engels introduce the historical mode of production in an attempt to explore the effects of the division of labor over workers. Specifically, Marx points out that the division of labor mainly defines particular roles assigned to workers and capitalists in the capitalist economy, as workers are forced to trade their labor with capitalists for money (p. 205). One the one hand, Marx and Engels acknowledge the role of the division of labor in increasing productivity, as they point out that workers can have enhanced productivity through the specialization of labor. On the other hand, Marx and Engels argue that the division of labor allows the capitalists to appropriate the surplus value of the labor of laborers through possessing the production materials and capital. In this regard, the capitalists can appropriate the surplus value of labor because they are able to dominate over workers due to their control and ownership of the production materials. Thus, Marx and Engels conclude that the division of labor serves as a tool for the capitalists to exploit laborers. Smith might responds to the criticisms of Marx and Engels by pointing out that the division of labor can have direct and realistic implications in facilitating economic development. In this respect, Smith might argue that the division of labor does not necessarily lead to exploitation and domination. Instead, it is the social system that exploits the division of labor as a tool for the capitalists to exploit laborers. Rather than compromising individual freedom and autonomy, the division of labor is conducive for the development of increased freedom enjoyed by workers, because they are able to break the restrictions of stricter social hierarchies represented by feudalism.