普遍环境的安全已成为国际社会的重要目标。最重要的环境问题，如气候条件的变化，减少臭氧层问题，砍伐森林，生物多样性是全面的。[ 1 ]日益变化的气候条件是一个长期存在的难题，涉及到多方面的联系，环境，经济，政治，社会和技术流程。全球社会已经采取了合法的措施来对抗环境的变革。
The safety of the universal environment has become the vital objectives of the international society. The foremost environmental issues such as change in climatic conditions, diminution of ozone layer, deforestation, problem of biodiversity are comprehensive. Increasingly change in climatic conditions is a long-standing dilemma that involves multifaceted connections with environmental, economic, political, social and technological processes. The global society has taken lawful steps to fight environment transform.
THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
The United Nations Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol are some of the lawful steps which target environment change alleviation creating a dissection between the developed and the developing countries through the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities in terms of obligations and responsibilities . The urge for the development, application and understanding of international environmental law has developed the rule of common but differentiated responsibility.
The first international legal instrument and the most comprehensive international attempt that addresses the adverse changes to the global environment is “The Framework Convention on Climate Change” which was signed at the 1992 United Nations “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro. Principle 7 of the Convention provides that “states shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.. The concentration of the dangerous gase which raises the greenhouse impact and avert hazardous anthropogenic intrusion in the climate structure was the most intervening objective of the Convention on climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol, 1997 is a protocol of the United Nations convention on Climate Change to implement some law to reduce the global warming and minimize the greenhouse effect on global environment.
THE PRINCIPLE OF COMMON BUT DIFFERENTIATED RESPONSIBILITY
The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is two fold i.e. the pressure that developed countries lay on the global environment and other resources like technology which they control. Despite the fact that the developed countries are unenthusiastic to own up the first basis, the developing countries have a well-built influence to persuade the former to admit differentiated conduct in their support. The principle gives warning to the world in two aspects, one is “double standards” regarding the environment protection and their implementation in regard to developing countries and the other is the assistance provided by developed countries to the developing countries for their sustainable development.
In reality the Principle 7of the Rio Convention is a controversial issue between the developed and the developing countries. The developed countries are not ready to accept the liability to disturb the global climatic conditions because of the processes undertaken by them for their development. On the other hand developing countries are not satisfied that it will have control on the activities of the developed countries which are having adverse affect on the global climatic change. It also represents the problem of the CBDR Principle as a great phenomenon.
Therefore the concept of common but differentiated responsibility is comprised of two diverse but inter-reliant components i.e. “common responsibility and differentiated responsibility”. The common responsibility represents the common obligations of the States regarding the safety of the environmental resource.The second component relates to differentiated environmental principles which are articulated around abundant factors of environmental problems like particular requirements and conditions, potential economic progress of countries.All these circumstances contributed in establishing the importance of Article 10 of the Kyoto protocol. The Kyoto protocol is the comprehensible and most recent effort to convert CBDR from a legal perception to a strategic instrument.