Media Essay 代写:Influenced Body Images And Public Perceptions
当涉及到体重和疾病，有许多解决方案，来记住，可能会影响它。根据（Heinberg，1999）从J. Kevin Thompson和Leslie J. Heinberg的日记“媒体对体像障碍和饮食失调的影响：我们骂他们，现在我们可以帮助他们”，说的因素可能会影响一个人的一个障碍是，嘲笑或批评起外表从父母、同伴或其他重要的个人早期、青春期发育成熟，性虐待、精神障碍、情绪消极、不良感受性的意识发展挑战的学术压力，和高社会比较倾向。然而，新闻媒体的作用，最近作为一个可能的贡献者体像障碍和饮食失调最受关注。 Media Essay 代写:Influenced Body Images And Public Perceptions
Media Essay 代写:Influenced Body Images And Public Perceptions
Media has influenced body images and public perceptions in the minds of everyone till today. According to, body image is basically describe as the thoughts, feelings and attitudes that could alter a person’s image of their own body. “Body dissatisfaction” however, is the degree of where a person is dissatisfied with his or her body. Clearly one’s level of body dissatisfaction plays a large role in that individual’s body image, which in turn plays a large role in that individual’s selfâ€esteem.
When it comes to weight and disorders, there are many solutions that come to mind that could influence it. According to (Heinberg,1999)Taken from J. Kevin Thompson and Leslie J. Heinberg’s journal of ‘The Media’s Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We Reviled Them, Now We Can Rehabilitate Them”, says that factors that could affect a person to a disorder is, teasing or critical comments about ones appearance from parents, peers or other significant individuals early, pubertal maturation, sexual abuse, psychiatric disturbance, negative emotionality, poor interoceptive awareness, developmental challenges academic pressures, and elevated social comparison tendencies. However, the role of media have recently received the most attention as a possible contributor to body image disturbance and eating dysfunctions.
From Leo W. (Jeffres, 2011)Jeffres, literature of ‘Media Influence on Public Perception of ethnic groups, generations and individuals’ shows that the mass media can affect people’s images of others as well as themselves. Identity may occur and form values, as audience may see themselves projected in the media, however the assessments of those perceptions are often made in terms of the values attached to the images. Each person may represent a constellation of values, some tied to their ethnicity, some to their generation and some to their uniqueness of being individual. In his theory, he believed that value is a concept that belief that pertain to an end state or behaviours that develop situation and guide evaluation or selection of a person’s behaviour and events; this behaviours are ordered by relative importance.
Today in this world, the relationship between the media and ethnic minorities is typically characterized by continuity, conflict and change. Just as Simon (Cottle,2000) states in his journal ‘Media Research and Ethnic Minority: Mapping the Field’, contending definitions of ‘race’, ‘racism’ and ‘ethnicity’, struggle for theoretical and political recognition. These terms and their corresponding theoretical frameworks, sometimes called the problematic of ‘race’. Variously provide us with the means of thinking about or thinking through some of the most fundamental categories, distinctions and discriminatory processes that humanity has yet produced for it and within which many of us conduct our lives and construct a sense of who we are, where we belong and where we want to be. Basically, questions of ‘ethnicity’ and ‘race’ are about the drawing and redrawing of boundaries.
Taking from a research paper from Benjie Achtenberg (Macalester,2006) College, of ‘Mass Media and its Influence on the Adolescent Mind’, mass media produces, creates and promotes multitudes of ideas and theories that have enormous influence on the American adolescent population and their perceptions of themselves(Macalester,2006). Additionally, this study, among many others analysed a number of magazines targeted at adolescent females and have suggested that their content supports the idea that female happiness and success are tied to physical appearance.
2.2 Media Preferences among Ethnic in Malaysia
According to the journal, The Examination on Media Preferences among Ethnic in Malaysia by (Idris,2004), states that Malaysians are more interested towards advertising media such as television and newspapers compared to online advertising and the benefits that created by those medium have lead to their preferences towards television and newspaper advertising. TV advertisements have a greater emotional effect on users compared to online advertising, suggesting advertising over that medium may make a stronger impact in influencing their buying decisions.
Malaysia a country that has many different ethnic groups may have different preferences of advertising media that may vary from other ethnic group. In fact, in Malaysia, the advertisers always have different languages of TV advertisements that cater to different ethnic groups. In response to these gaps, this study attempt to identify the power of traditional advertising and online advertising and the effect of these mediums on Malaysian consumers to determine the consumer’s preferences.
Both medium have own advantages and disadvantages. The study has shown that the advantages of traditional advertising medium have captured consumer’s attention which leads to their satisfaction. Convenience and accessibility have been a major impact with customer’s satisfaction. Consumers feel easy with traditional mediums as they can get it anywhere and everywhere unlike online advertisements where they need to have Internet or to go to cyber cafe to browse it.
Newspaper and television are easier to access at home or other places to find out about the advertisements or information about a particular product. However, Malaysians may choose the medium based on their language of preferences. For example, Malays may prefer advertisements and medium in their own language and the same goes to other ethnicities. (Barry, 2002)
2.3 Ethnic Identity and News Media Preferences in Malaysia
According to (Firdaus,2006), stated that most frequently used news media is most apparent in newspaper readership compared to television audiences among universities students. Racial stability remains a brand of Malaysia’s success as a nation. The seemingly growing division among the three major races is a growing concern. Malaysians’ nationally acknowledged preferences for socializing only within their respective races, and the resultant lack of inter-racial interaction is seen as a problem and a challenge to general integration. Malaysian media makes it a practice to target audiences and create niches according to racial lines and language. Thus, while there is no mystery regarding the news preferences of Malay, Chinese, and Indian respondents.
The journal states that various studies have shown that newspaper reading leads to greater understanding and engagement with major issues as compared to television news viewing. As far as this is true the fact respondents differ greatly in their most commonly read newspaper may contribute to a divergent agenda among readers as these newspapers are owned by different organizations with different agendas.
Two hypotheses were made in these researches which are respondents of different races watch the news on different television channels and respondents of different races read different newspapers.
Racial polarization in most frequently used news media is most apparent in newspaper readership than among television audiences and various studies have shown that newspaper reading leads to greater understanding and engagement with major issues as compared to television news viewing. This study has demonstrated that Malaysians of different races actually prefer different types of news media.
It is important to indentify your ethnic identity such as Malay, Chinese and Indian because(Appiah, 2004) states that to create media content advertisers should identify the ethnic groups. Advertisers and media providers provide programs and media contents by targeting ethnic groups. Other than that he also states that, people with weak ethnic identity have troubles associating with media content that have direct association to a particular ethnic group. If an Indian does not consider himself and Indian, a Tamil program will not be his choice of program. Media framing has significant effects on audience’s identification with a particular social groups ( Richardson, 2005). Individuals that consider to be in more than one ethnicity find themselves salient to a particular media content which focuses on one media ethnicity.
Audience reception research in different European countries shows that ethnic minority groups are mostly dissatisfied with their media image (Devroe, 2004). In Malaysia minor ethnicity such as, Sikh, Sabahan and Sarawakian are hardly portrayed in the news media. They have no roles to play in the media because all priorities in the media are given to larger ethnic groups. This may cause dissatisfaction among the ethnic minorities in Malaysia. Their media preference would have been programs that features their own people, unfortunately not much importance were given by the media to the preferences of minor ethnicity in Malaysia. Ethnic minorities had little opportunity to express their opinion in the press (Devroe & Saeys, 2002)
In Malaysia most Television programs on the local TV stations cater programs for the larger ethnicity in Malaysia which is Malays. This is done to increase ratings in Media Company, thus allowing them to generate more profits. The ethnic minorities in Malaysia such as the Indian and Chinese also have featured TV programs in their languages in the local Television cable provider, just not as many as the Malay programs. Husband (2000), emphasizes the role of the media in creating a multiethnic public sphere, where diverse groups can feel they are making a contribution. If local television providers includes more TV program for the minor ethnic group in Malaysia, Malaysian from all ethnic group will feel included and accepted.
Positive attitudes are generated by the public when Advertisement that depict ethic characters, values and images held by the target group are more likely to create positive attitudes and possibly generate more purchase intent(Appiah, 2001; Appiah & Yung, 2009; Elliott & Wattanasuwan, 1998; Forehand & Deshpandé, 2001; Sierra, Hyman, & Torres, 2009) Malaysians are drawn to advertisement and media content portraying their own ethnic culture and language as well. A person from a Chinese ethnic background is most likely to watch Chinese drama’s on TV9 instead of watching Malay drama’s on TV 2. He will choose the channel with programs that suits best with his ethnic cultural beliefs and language which he understands and feel more comfortable listening too.
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2.4The influence of language.
“Language is an anonymous, collective and unconscious art. It is the result of the creativity of thousands of generations.” (Edward Sapir). Language is a human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. We live in a multi cultural nation of various ethnicities where Malays, Chinese and Indians live harmoniously together as a community. In contrary to our vast cultures, we have created combustion of mix marriages within different cultures. This has brought out exposure to our countrymen to be more exposed to different languages instead of only being able to communicate with the use of the national language. Malaysia is a country with its own national language, the bahasa Malaysia language also known as bahasa Melayu. Malaysian citizens also have a strong grasp of the English language as it is the second national language. A person’s native language that is, a language learned from birth is more commonly known as mother tongue. It is the language which the child learns almost without any conscious effort on his part. It is a language which the child acquires while living in his own social group. “And training in the use of mother-tongue-the tongue in which a child thinks and dreams-becomes the first essential of shoaling and the finest instrument of human culture.” (P. B. Ballard.)
The use of the mother tongue is still very widespread among Malaysians. Children of Chinese decent are taught the language of Hokkien, Cantonese or Mandarin. As for the Indian children, the language and use of Tamil, Teleggu and Mayalayam are not a thing of the past. The use of these mother tongue languages are heard, used and spoken among our generation today; be it young children, adults, people of the working community or even among our politicians and country leaders. Uses of the mother tongue generate and spawn a sense of being a part of a certain culture or belonging to a certain ancestry and hereditary. For example, the tendency of an Indian, who wants to initiate a conversation with another fellow Indian, has a higher tendency to have the conversation in Tamil as it is their language and identity. The sense of a connection and link makes more sense within these individuals to have a conversation with a language they both significantly share a bond with. Hence, affirming that the use of mother tongue is the most potent agent for mutual communication and exchange of ideas. “Having the feeling of being treated fairly in news and media, or at least having the feeling of being represented, helps to create a sense of belonging, or what (Tufte, 2001) calls ‘locality’, feeling at home somewhere.” (devroe,2004)
The outcome of having these mother tongue languages spoken at home, causes one to not only communicates with others in these languages outside the home but also to obtain and share information with others in their native language as well. The preference for English among higher educated or richer Malaysians may signal a weaker identification with their respective ethnic groups as compared to their less wealthy or educated counterparts. (Amir,2006) Therefore, due to language and family orientation, they way some races take in news and information vary from one another. (Idris 2004 ) Those with good command of their mother tongue language are more likely to watch or listen to the news in their preferred language.
This relativity allows them to attain and acquire news and information in a simpler way as it is easier to understand in a language that they have been more familiar with or exposed to. Malaysians have the tendency to identify themselves first with their ethnic and second being a Malaysian. (UKM.) After more than 50 years of independence, the effort to create a Malaysian race with its own national identity is still at a cross road as individuality is still very strong among ethnicities.