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英语report格式 学校行为的功能分析

 英语report格式  学校行为的功能分析

对行为进行功能分析的过程有五个步骤。第一步是对目标行为的描述和定义。一个良好定义的行为是非常必要的,当收集,甚至与团队成员沟通。感染行为应界定在具体的,可衡量的(你可以看到和计数)和观察到的条件。例如,它不会是明智的说“彼得是侵略性的”。实在是太模糊,因为它不描述的一些原因彼得是积极的但如果有人说“彼得是积极的因为他踢、打、戳其他学生在过渡时期”,他会因为具体声明发出攻击性的原因。在收集学生的行为时,考虑到教师在学生的学习成绩和课堂行为方面的期望,这将是非常重要的。这是因为教师的期望超过或甚至低于学生的表现能力。在评估学生的行为时,重要的是要考虑文化差异。例如,我一些同龄人之间的文化竞争是不鼓励的,而在其他人的眼睛接触的成年人是不允许的。因此,为家长提供有价值的信息,他们的行为或文化价值是非常重要的。在考虑学生的行为时,学校的人员应确保他们知道存在的差异,以便他们尊重他们,也采用家庭的观点。为了明确确定学生的行为,重要的是要观察他们在不同的设置和在不同类型的活动。“是”回答的问题问到学校下属的工作人员和照顾者可以在确定一个行为的具体特征是非常重要的。

There are five steps to the process of conducting functional analysis of behavior. The first step is the description and definition of the target behavior. A well defined behavior is very essential when collecting and even communication with team members. T6he behavior should be defined in specific, measurable (something you can see and count) and observable terms. For example it will not be advisable to say “Peter is aggressive”. The statement is too vague because it does not depict some of the reasons as to why Peter is aggressive but if one says “Peter is aggressive because he kicks, hits and pokes other students during transition time”, he will be specific because the statement gives out the reasons of the aggressiveness. When collecting the student behavior it will be very important for the team to consider the expectations of the teacher in terms of student academic performance and classroom conduct. This is because the teacher’s expectations exceed or even fall below the student’s performance ability. While assessing the student behavior it is important to consider cultural differences. For instance I some culture competition between peers is discouraged while in others eye contact with the adults is not allowed. It is therefore very important for the parents to provide valuable information their behaviors or cultural values. When considering the student’s behavior the school personnel should ensure that they are aware of the existing differences so that they may respect them and also adopt the family’s perspective. In order for the student’s behavior to be explicitly identified it is important to observe them in different setting and during different types of activities. A “yes” answer to the questions asked to the schools subordinate staff and caregivers can be very vital in the pinpointing of the specific characteristics of a behavior.

进行功能行为分析的另一个步骤是收集信息,以确定功能。这是因为收集和分析各种有关行为的信息,显着破坏的教学和学习过程将有助于学校人员在选择最适当的干预措施。社会、环境、事件和过去事件的信息,过去的事件可能对当前行为有很大的影响。它也有助于团队预测何时、何地和与谁,甚至在什么条件下,一定的行为是最有可能发生。收集信息的各种条件下,一个学生是最和最不可能表现出的问题行为是重要的,因为它确保特定的上下文因素的确定是完成。语境因素较多,可观察的行为全是因为他们有情感和认知方式。这意味着这种行为的原因可能并不是直接观测到的,因此必须使用间接措施的确定。例如,当一个学生在给定工作表时,它可能不是工作表,导致行动,但事实上,学生不知道什么是必需的,因此预期失败或嘲笑。一个行为问题源于各种原因,因此,最好的团队检查的行为,从尽可能多的不同的角度。这就要求使用多种手段收集有关的行为的信息,这可能包括审查学生的过去和目前的记录(医学和教育)和学生的项目或产品的评价,如在课堂作业,家庭作业和测试。在这一步骤中进行功能行为分析两种方法(直接和间接评估)被用于测量学生的行为。直接评估实际上是观察问题行为,并描述环境的条件是环境的行为(它的上下文),上下文涉及的事件是先行和随之而来的学生的利益行为。间接评估往往很大程度上依赖于使用的访谈与教师和其他成人(巴士司机,家长)有直接接触的学生。一个半结构化面试的学生也将提供一个重要的洞察到学生的角度来看问题,因此产生一个更全面的了解不适当的行为背后的原因。

The other step of conducting functional behavior analysis is to collect information to determine function. This is because the collection and analysis of various kinds of information about behavior that significantly disrupts the teaching and learning process will assist the school personnel in selecting the most appropriate interventions. Information on the social, environmental context, events preceding and following the behavior respectively and the past events may be of great influence to the current behavior. It also assists the teams in predicting when, where and with whom and even under what condition a certain behavior is most likely to occur. Collecting information on the various conditions under which a student is most and least likely to exhibit the problem behavior is of major importance because it ensures that the determination of specific contextual factors is accomplished. Contextual factors are more than that the whole of observable behaviors because they include the affective and cognitive mannerisms .this means that the cause of the behavior may not be something that is directly observable but and therefore must be identified using indirect measures. For example when a student acts out when given a worksheet it may not be the worksheet that causing the acting-out but the fact that the student t doesn’t know what is required and thus anticipating failure or ridicule. A behavior problem stems from a variety of causes and therefore it is advisable for the team to examine the behavior from as many different angles as possible. This calls for the use of multiple means of collecting information about the behavior this may include the review of t he student s past and current records (medical and educational) and evaluation of a sample of the students items or products such as in-class assignments, homework and tests. In this step of conducting functional behavior analysis two methods (direct and indirect assessment) are used in the measurement of the student’s behavior. Direct assessment consists actually observing the problem behavior and describing g the conditions which are surroundings the behavior (its context).the context involves the events that are antecedent and consequent to the student behaviors of interest. Indirect assessment tends to rely heavily on the use of interviews with teachers and other adults (bus drivers, parents) who have direct contact with the student. A semi structured interview with the student will also provide a critical insight into the student’s perspective of the issue and therefore yield a more complete understanding of the reasons behind the inappropriate behavior.

 英语report格式  学校行为的功能分析

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