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These may be defined as the independent African governments that had to develop strategies for economic matters. These governments were under colonial rule before being independents. These governments include: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique, Malawi, Chad, Rwanda, Angola, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. These countries gained their independence only after waging war against their colonial masters. While the majority of African countries gained independence without having to resort to revolution, in every African country, independence was only after the people who organized themselves in a struggle against colonialism.

Lack of separation of powers. Since in a democratic state, the authority and powers of the state are divide into three branches of the government i.e the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. In bad governance state, there is no separation of powers and if separation of powers exist, it is very poor. In this state one may monopolize the state authority and power.