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作为手术前检查的一部分,患者A被询问最后一次吃了,这是手术前12小时。给予禁食6小时的建议给患者,以防止麻醉诱导期间和之后的恶心和呕吐,因为这伴随着脊柱引起腹部和胃的收缩。这反过来剥夺了所需的能量的代谢系统的食物消化(Cobbold&Money 2010; McNeil,1997)。


The hypothalamus is the central organ that acts as the body’s heat promoting and heat loss centre, then brains thermoregulatory centre. Body temperature is kept stable and regulated with the help of blood. The neuronal centre in the posterior hypothalamus is triggered when there is a decrease in temperature in the blood or the external temperature is low. Mechanisms for heat conservation and heat production are triggered such as, shivering, which is the body’s natural response to cold, constriction of blood vessels in the skin and increased metabolic activity to produce energy

There are patients who are more at risk of developing hypothermia these include; older and younger patients. The size of the patient: thin, due to the lack of tissue mass and obese, due to the large surface area. The type of procedure: open thoracic, abdominal, gynaecological or genitourinary. Patients having a combined general and spinal anaesthesia (Welch, 2002)

As part of the pre operative check in Patient A was asked the last time she had eaten, this was 12 hours before the procedure. Advice of fasting for 6 hours plus is given to patients to prevent nausea and vomiting during and after the induction of anaesthesia, as this along with the spinal causes the constriction of the abdomen and stomach. This in turn deprives the body of the metabolic system of energy it needs from food digestion (Cobbold & Money 2010; McNeil, 1997).

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