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回顾历史,Simon Kuznets注意到一种模式;随着一个国家的经济和技术进步,收入不平等随之而变化;首先它增加和峰值(例如从狩猎和收集期到土地期的发展),然后在工业时期减少(Acemoglu&Robinson,2002,183)这是我们得到的u形曲线称为库兹涅茨曲线。库兹涅茨曲线是社会发展时社会和经济不平等的代表;它是一个图,其中y轴表示不等式的强度,x轴是社会发展水平(狩猎聚集,农业等)的时间表。卡尔·马克思注意到社会中的模式。



Looking back in history, Simon Kuznets noticed a pattern; as the economy and technology of a country advances, the income inequality changes along with it; first it increases and peaks (such as the development from the hunting and gathering period to the agrarian period), and then decreases during the industrial period (Acemoglu & Robinson, 2002, 183) This is where we get the u-shaped curve called the Kuznets curve. The Kuznets curve is the representation of the social and economic inequality as society develops; it is a graph where the y-axis represents intensity of inequality, and the x-axis is a timeline of the society’s level of development (hunting gathering, agrarian, etc). Karl Marx noticed pattern in society as well.

Karl Marx was a major philosopher, who introduced many ideas that involved social class, and the inequality among the social classes. Marx believed that in a capitalist society, there was a class struggle between the factory owners (the bourgeoisie), who controlled the means of production, and the marginalized working people who worked for wages (the proletariat). In addition, the marginalization produced the capitalist society created alienation (“the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness”) among the working class (Macionis & Gerber, 2009, 93).  Marx theorised that this struggle will lead to a revolution where the workers will bring down the capitalists, and replace it with a classless society, the next stage of society (Britannica, 2005).

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