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澳洲公民权利学论文代写:语言规划

坦桑尼亚拥有丰富的土著语言约3700万人口(SA 2007,维基百科2008)。估计范围从120到135的土著语言(gadelli 1999、约翰逊&约翰逊1998,SA 2007)。在这些语言斯瓦希里语,这一直是重要的语言,语言规划是至少自殖民时代。斯瓦希里语是在结构和大多数公民的第一语言相关词汇的班图语,但它也派生出大量的词汇来自阿拉伯语由于沿海贸易的影响(gadelli 1999、约翰逊&约翰逊1998,SA 2007)。斯瓦希里语是一个通用的弗兰卡以相对较少的母语,约有10%的坦桑尼亚人口组成的斯瓦希里人居住在海岸和桑给巴尔,以及这座城市的年轻一代(弗格森2006、约翰逊&约翰逊1998,rubagumya 1990,SA 2007)。在坦桑尼亚讲斯瓦希里语作为第二语言与本土语言90%(Mansour 1993,rubagumya 1990,SA 2007)。只有15%的坦桑尼亚估计说英语(rubagumya 1990)。 斯瓦希里是东非的第十世纪前为通用弗兰卡是由于外来刺激如传教士和阿拉伯商人的各种既得利益的传播(kiango 2005)。虽然德国传教士相信福音是更好的传播利用土著语言圣灵的父亲法国和中美洲货币联盟传教士英国见到Swahili时,当地的语言弗兰卡,作为最好的车赢得信徒(kiango 2005)。这些外来的刺激,虽然可能很难融入我们的语言规划的定义,帮助传播斯瓦希里在东非,特别在坦桑尼亚,语言的传播更容易在室内比肯尼亚,因此启用的殖民时代,没有语语言规划者可以忽略它是在这样一个强大的位置.

澳洲公民权利学论文代写:语言规划

Tanzania boasts an abundance of indigenous languages for a population of approximately 37 million (Sa 2007, Wikipedia 2008). Estimates range anywhere from 120 to over 135 indigenous languages (Gadelli 1999, Johnson & Johnson 1998, Sa 2007). Amongst these languages is Swahili, which has been the pivotal language around which language planning has evolved since at least colonial times. Swahili is a Bantu language in structure and vocabulary related to the first language of the majority of citizens, but it also derives a great deal of its vocabulary from Arabic due to the influences of coastal trade (Gadelli 1999, Johnson & Johnson 1998, Sa 2007). Swahili is a well-established lingua franca with comparatively few native speakers, about 10% of the Tanzanian population, consisting of the Swahili people living along the coast and in Zanzibar, as well as of the younger generation of the city (Ferguson 2006, Johnson & Johnson 1998, Rubagumya 1990, Sa 2007). Over 90% of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a second language alongside their local native language (Mansour 1993, Rubagumya 1990, Sa 2007). Only 15% of Tanzanians are estimated to speak English (Rubagumya 1990).Swahili was used before the tenth century in East Africa as a lingua franca and was spread due to the various vested interests of foreign stimuli such as missionaries and Arab traders (Kiango 2005). Although German missionaries believed the gospel was better to spread by using indigenous languages the Holy Ghost Fathers of France and UMCA missionaries of England saw Swahili, the local lingua franca, as the best vehicle to win converts (Kiango 2005). These foreign stimuli, although possibly difficult to fit into our definition of language planning, helped spread Swahili in East Africa, particularly in Tanzania where the language spread easier in the interior than Kenya, and therefore enabled Swahili to be in such a powerful position by colonial times that no language planners could ignore it

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