鲍恩和莱文的研究的另一个问题是,他们使用的结果是狭隘的。适当地,他们十分重视传统学术成果等平均成绩和学术荣誉。然而,他们只是口头上其他大学的结果,尤其是那些之外的教室。鲍恩和莱文指出,运动员的大部分落入第三类的底部。他们一直看候选人在2004年即将到来的总统大选,他们会发现,民主党候选人约翰·克里和共和党候选人、现任总统乔治•布什(George w . Bush),共享相同的区别在回收机构覆盖游戏(美联社,2005)。学生可以直接精力在许多不同的方式,往往那些低年级出现在结果不传统的测量来实现。虽然作者证明,平均而言,运动员在学业上相对于同龄人表现更不好,还有其他结果与参与大学体育呈正相关。瑞安(1989)发现了一个积极参与学院田径和整体满意度之间的关系的大学经历,动机获得一个学位,和人际交往能力和领导能力的发展。有这么多书中关注运动员如何相对于同龄人表现不佳。然而,作者疏忽在庆祝学生积极的结果与参与大学体育联系在一起。作者就说服了打击表现不佳的问题虽然承认需要保持参与校际体育的积极方面。等学术成果平均绩点是有用的和必要的指标来评估学生的表现,研究短由于其疏忽出现的更广泛的学生结果。
Another problem with Bowen and Levin’s study is that the outcomes they use are narrowly defined. Appropriately, they place great emphasis on traditional academic outcomes such as grade point average and academic honors. However, they merely pay lip service to other collegiate outcomes, particularly those outside of the classroom. Bowen and Levin point to the large percentage of athletes that fell into the bottom third of the class. Had they been looking at candidates in the upcoming presidential election of 2004, they would have found that the Democratic nominee, John Kerry, and the Republican nominee and incumbent president, George W. Bush, shared the same distinction at institutions covered in Reclaiming the Game (AP, 2005). Students can direct their energies in many different ways and often those with lower grades emerge having achieved outcomes that are not traditionally measured. While the authors establish that, on average, athletes perform worse academically relative to their peers, there are other outcomes that are positively associated with participation in college sports. Ryan (1989) found a positive relationship between participation in college athletics and overall satisfaction with the college experience, motivation to earn a degree, and the development of interpersonal skills and leadership abilities. There is so much focus in the book on how athletes underperform relative to their peers. Yet, the authors are remiss in celebrating the positive student outcomes associated with participation in college sports. It would have been convincing had the authors combated the issue of underperformance while acknowledging the need to preserve the positive aspects of participation in intercollegiate athletics. While academic outcomes like grade point average are useful and necessary metrics for evaluating student performance, the study comes up short due to its negligence of a broader set of student outcomes.