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澳洲环境研究代写论文:义和团运动

义和团运动引发了国际力量空前的协调一致的军事反应,因为义和团的义和团更广为人知的是义和团的义和团已经肢解和屠杀了数以千计的中国基督教信徒,西方传教士和外国侨民。[1]这些暴行发生在1898年到1900年之间,当时,义和团开始把他们的敌人放在中国山东地区,然后向北蔓延到北京。义和团无法区分基督教传教士对中国农民传教的渴望和强迫西化的愿望。本文认为义和团运动在中国与外部世界的关系中受到了伤害和开放。显然,义和团成员的暴力行为使国际社会感到震惊和愤怒。[2]因此,它非但没有实现从全球化和西方化的中国农民中清除中国的目标,而是使世界对中国产生了影响。义和团在无意中与中国和外部世界建立了国际关系。像美国这样的国家避免了争辩的对话,并开始与中国政府进行有意义的外交磋商。然而,1901年签署的《义和团协议》严重影响了中国与世界的关系。这一协议实际上使中国经济破产。清朝被迫向受到拳击家暴力影响的外国支付了三百三十万美元的赔偿。[3]义和团运动如大多数起义一样,没有起义军的叙述。反叛的历史是由受害者、政治家、历史学家和其他学者的文本组合而成的,就像义和团运动一样。大多数目击者的描述通常都是匿名的,但揭示了与起义有关的残酷的死亡事实。科恩举了一个很好的例子,他引用了一名中国目击者的目击者描述,他在1900年的天井义和团运动中目击了死亡现场,目击者描述了叛乱的暴行,他们宣称。

澳洲环境研究代写论文:义和团运动

The Boxer Rebellion instigated an unprecedented coordinated military response from international powers after The Righteous and Harmonious Fists more commonly known as the Boxers had mutilated and slaughtered thousands of Chinese Christian converts, Western missionaries and foreign nationals.[1] The atrocities occurred between 1898 and 1900 when the Boxers began targeting their perceived enemies in the Shandong region of China before spreading north to Beijing. The Boxers could not differentiate between the Christian missionaries’ desire to proselytise China’s peasants and forced westernisation. This paper contends that the Boxer Rebellion both wounded and opened relations between China and the outside world. Clearly, the discriminate violence of the Boxers shocked and angered the international community.[2] Therefore, far from achieving their objective of purging China from globalisation and the westernisation of Chinese peasants, it caused the world to hone in on China. Inadvertently the Boxer Rebellion opened international relationships with China and the outside world. Countries like the United States refrained from argumentative dialogue and began to have meaningful diplomatic discussions with the Chinese government. Nevertheless, the Boxer Protocol, signed in 1901, seriously affected China’s relationship with the world. The protocol virtually bankrupted China’s economy. The Qing Dynasty was forced to pay three hundred and thirty three million United State dollars indemnity to foreign countries affected by the Boxer’s violence.[3] The Boxer Rebellion like the majority of insurrections has no narrative from the insurgents. The historiographies of rebellions are a combination of texts of victims, politicians, historians and other academics as in the case the Boxer Rebellion. The majority of eyewitness accounts are usually anonymous but reveal the harsh reality of death associated with insurrections. Cohen gives a perfect example of this when he cites an eyewitness account of a Chinese individual who witnessed the scene of death during the Boxer Rebellion in Tianjing in 1900, the eyewitness describes the atrocities of the rebellion, they declare,

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