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澳洲经济学essay代写:消费

在经济学中,消费是指家庭对商品和服务的支出(Devitt 2018)。消费是爱尔兰国内生产总值(GDP)的组成部分之一,将受到英国退欧的严重影响。通货膨胀在许多方面影响消费。2016年,爱尔兰的通胀率很低。这是由于当年英国投票脱欧后英镑贬值所致。那一年,由于进口价格下降,消费者支出上升,这当然反过来降低了进口商品的价格(爱尔兰央行2017年)。由于爱尔兰和英国如此接近,可以说,退欧对爱尔兰对英国进出口的影响可能很大,这取决于退欧的类型。英国进出口的主要部门是农业部门。英国脱欧后,这一经济领域将面临许多问题。大约40%的爱尔兰对英国的出口是食品(Mangan 2018)。英国脱欧后可能不会维持欧盟现行的食品关税,这可能会对消费造成严重影响,进而影响爱尔兰的GDP。如果通货膨胀率因此而上升,爱尔兰的生活费用可能增加,这将对整个消费产生不利影响。如果欧洲经济区脱离欧盟,农业食品将导致爱尔兰GDP在2.8%的基础上下降1%。在硬退欧(WTO)的情况下,农业食品将减少GDP的1.9%,占7%,其中制药和化学行业的负面影响最大,占2.6% (Thelle and Sunesen 2018)。这些数字为爱尔兰的整体GDP描绘了一个严峻的未来。很明显,由于农产品的影响如此之大,爱尔兰的农村地区将是英国退欧后受影响最大的地区。

澳洲经济学essay代写:消费

Consumption, in economics, is the spending of goods and services by households (Devitt 2018). Consumption is one of the components of Irelands gross domestic product (GDP) that will be gravely affected by Brexit. Inflation affects consumption in many ways. In 2016, Ireland had a low inflation rate. This was due to a fall in value of the sterling that year, after Britains vote to leave the EU. The spending of consumers that year, rose due to the price of imports decreasing which of course, in turn, lowered the prices of the goods imported (Central Bank of Ireland 2017).With Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) being so close in proximity, it is true to say that, depending on which type of Brexit takes place, the effect on imports and exports from Ireland to the UK could be major. The main sector for UK imports and exports is the agricultural sector. This area of the economy is one that will face many problems post-Brexit. Approximately 40% of Ireland exports to the UK are that of food (Mangan 2018). The UK may not maintain the current EU tariffs on food products after Brexit which could cause severe impact on consumption, thus, affecting Irelands GDP. In the event of a rise in inflation due to this, Irelands cost of living could increase which would negatively impact consumption as a whole. In the event of an EEA Brexit, agri-food will cause a decline in Irelands GDP by 1% out of 2.8%. In the case of a hard Brexit (WTO), agri-food will reduce the GDP by 1.9% out of 7% with the pharmaceutical and chemical sector negatively affecting it the most with 2.6% out of 7% (Thelle and Sunesen 2018). These figures paint a grim future for Irelands GDP overall. It is clear, with agri-food having such a major impact, rural areas in Ireland will suffer the most post-Brexit.

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