Stress is a normal and even necessary part of life and psychological development. It is what drives productivity and future planning but if the body’s stress response system remains active for long periods of time stress can become toxic. The body’s near constant exposure to stress hormones in individuals with PTSD symptoms can lead to heart disease, obesity, adolescent pregnancy and early sexual activity. Early brain development in children is crucial and like toxins such as lead, mercury or alcohol, toxic stress can inhibit the optimal development of the neuroendocrine system. These structural changes, if not permanent, must be professionally treated. (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014) In Tishelman’s 2010 paper on utilizing a trauma lens in school, it is cited how trauma can damage the building blocks a child needs to develop and excel in school. Maltreated children tend to have lower frustration tolerance, are more prone to anger, less persistent and exhibit greater challenge avoidance. Maltreated preschoolers have also been found to exhibit less cognitive flexibility and creativity in problem solving. Traumatized children also receive more disciplinary referrals and suspensions than their peers.In 2014, Hoffman did a meta-analysis on health outcomes studied in trauma research and found a lack of research based questioning of disability, function, and health in most PTSD outcome studies. Trauma studies have come a long way in the past century but a good understanding of health outcomes is still lacking, possibly due to the heterogeneity of trauma experiences and their contexts. Trauma is a very variable illness, some events will not be traumatic for everyone and the circumstances of the event can affect how PTSD manifests.