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澳洲留学生论文代写:知识领域

另一个知识领域的知识也在不断变化:自然科学和人文科学。创造我们所接受的知识的科学发现是由实验和观察得出的。这些实验是用科学的方法来完成的,它被定义为“系统地追求知识的原则和程序,包括问题的识别和表述,通过观察和实验收集数据,以及假设的表述和检验”(梅里亚姆-韦伯斯特)。随着科技的进步,科学方法变得越来越精确,从而影响了什么被接受,什么被抛弃。一个很好的例子是,科学家发现吸烟和肺癌之间有直接联系。在过去,肺癌实际上被认为是一种非常罕见的疾病。因此,当时被接受的事实是吸烟和患病之间没有联系。然而,在20世纪50年代,“吸烟与肺癌之间的联系证据开始积累”(Bastian, 2008),表明之前被接受的事实被一些人抛弃,因为他们认为吸烟与肺癌之间存在联系。科学的方法论甚至证明了两者之间是有联系的;“……1951年至1994年在英国进行的研究表明,吸烟者死于肺癌的比率大约是35岁以上不吸烟者的三倍”(Bastian, 2008)。尽管这个实验清楚地显示了这两个变量之间的联系,一些人仍然认为,在某个时候,吸烟不可能导致肺癌。这个例子质疑了我们的知识问题以及所给出的陈述,因为我们现在看到今天所提供的知识和明天被抛弃的知识,不仅是因为事实,而且最终是一个人的选择,他们想要相信什么。这取决于人民自己:最终,任何人都不可能被迫放弃他们拥有的任何知识,或接受他们不想接受的任何东西。

澳洲留学生论文代写:知识领域

Knowledge is also constantly altered in another area of knowledge: natural and human sciences. Scientific discoveries that create the knowledge that we accept are made from experiments and observations. These experiments are done with the use of scientific methodology, which is defined as “principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses” (Merriam-Webster). Scientific methodology has become more accurate over time due to advances in technology, thus affecting what is accepted and what is discarded. A good example of this is when scientists found a direct link between people smoking cigarettes and developing lung cancer. In the past, lung cancer was actually considered an exceptionally rare disease. Therefore, the fact that was accepted then was that there was no link to smoking and getting the disease. However, in the 1950s, “evidence linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer began to accumulate” (Bastian, 2008), showing that the fact that was accepted before was discarded by some people as they believed that there was now a connection between cigarettes and lung cancer. Scientific methodology even proved that there was a relationship between the two; “…study, carried out in Britain between 1951 and 1994, revealed that the death rate for smokers from lung cancer was about three times that of non-smokers from men over 35” (Bastian, 2008). Even though this experiment clearly showed a link between the two variables, some people still accepted that there was no way smoking cigarettes would at some point make you develop lung cancer. This example questions our knowledge issue as well as the statement given because we now see that knowledge given today and knowledge that is discarded tomorrow is not only done because of facts but also in the end it is a person’s choice what they want to believe in. It depends on the people themselves: in the end, there is no way for anyone to be forced to discard any knowledge that they possess or accept anything that they do not want to.

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