Assignment help

澳洲MQ麦考瑞论文代写:神圣和自然法则

是神圣和自然法则的结合,必须指向共同的利益。这种法律可以根据时间的不同而有所不同,但其实质必须是,正如不公正的法律不是法律一样。对阿奎那来说,不公正的人类法律只会促进立法者的利益;或超越立法者的权力;或者对被治理的社会施加不平等的负担。因此,在这个理论基础下,阿奎那认为,不服从不公正的法律成为一种责任,就好像法律违反了神圣的法律,人从服从中释放出来——我们应该服从上帝,而不是人。然而,这种不服从应该避免,如果它会导致社会不稳定,这是一个更大的罪恶比存在一个不公正的法律在一开始。阿奎那主要关注的是法律的本质而不是法律体系的本质或者法律是如何运作的。稍后我们将看到,约翰·芬尼斯对这两方面都很关心。根据阿奎那的观点,法律是那些关心社会并为社会所知的人们为了共同利益而使用的理性。阿奎那认为,上帝赋予人类特征的首要原因是我们的理性和理性能力。人类倾向于自然地做事情,从而反映出上帝是极其理性的。运用理性和基本原理,我们可以推论出什么是不言而喻的善,什么是值得追求的,什么是不言而喻的恶,什么是应该避免的。在追求美好事物的过程中,我们为了共同的利益,使用理性制定法律,阿奎那认为,我们再次参与了上帝的理性世界秩序。

澳洲麦考瑞论文代写:神圣和自然法则

Is derived a combination of both the Divine and Natural Laws and must be directed toward the common good. Such law can vary in accordance with time but its essence must be just as an unjust law is not law (lex injusta non est lex). For Aquinas an unjust human law is one that furthers the interests of the lawgiver solely; or exceeds the power of the lawgiver; or imposes unequal burdens on the society being governed. Under this rationale therefore, Aquinas held the belief that disobedience to an unjust law becomes a duty as if the law is contrary to Divine law, man is released from obedience – we should obey God rather than man. However such disobedience should be avoided if it were to lead to social instability, which is a greater evil than the existence of an unjust law in the first instance.Aquinas was concerned with the nature of laws primarily rather than the nature of a legal system or how laws operate. John Finnis, as will be seen later, was concerned with both equally. Law, according to Aquinas, is the use of reason for the common good made by those that care about the community and made known to this community. Aquinas believed that God gave humans characteristics the primary of which was our capability for rationality and reason. Mankind tends to do things naturally thus mirroring God as supremely rational. Using reason and rationale we can deduce what is self-evidently good and worth pursuing or what is self-evidently bad or evil and to be avoided. In this pursuit of good things we make laws for the common good using reason and are, again according to Aquinas, participating in God’s rational world order.

发表评论