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澳洲珀斯教育学代写:行为主义

行为主义是20世纪早期的主要心理学范式,以沃森(1913)和斯金纳(1976)的研究为特征。它是一种学习方法,注重可观察和可量化的行为,不需要参考心理过程。知识被看作是一系列行为的集合,这些行为在很大程度上是被动的,对环境刺激的机械反应。为了描述这种知识,不需要参考内部的心理过程,而是说,如果某人拥有适当的行为技能,他就能理解一些东西。行为学家认为,教育的目的是为学习者提供对特定刺激的适当反应。信息以某种刺激的适当行为的形式从教师传递给学习者,学习被描述为“由于教学、培训或辅导而获得一种新行为或改变行为”。行为反应是通过使用有效的强化计划来强化的,该计划将材料分解为一系列小任务,不断重复材料,并为正确的反应提供积极的强化(Skinner, 1976)。因此,教学方法包括死记硬背、“技巧和练习”等技巧,以及难度逐渐增加的问答任务,因为这些技巧能够将材料分解成更小的片段,并允许学习所需的持续重复(Wray, 2010)。也有人认为,教学应该仔细计划和系统,定期测试学习者的行为,以监测他们的进步,并提供对他们的学习反馈.
Behaviourism was the primary psychological paradigm of the early twentieth century and is characterised by the work of Watson (1913) and Skinner (1976). It is an approach to learning that focuses on observable and quantifiable behaviour and discounts the need to refer to mental processes. Knowledge is seen as a repertoire of behaviours that are largely passive, mechanical responses to environmental stimuli . In order to describe this knowledge, no reference to internal, mental processes are needed, and instead, someone is said to understand something if they possess the appropriate repertoire of behaviours.Behaviourists believe that the aim of education is to provide learners with the appropriate repertoire of responses to specific stimuli. Information, in the form of the appropriate behaviour for a certain stimulus, is transmitted from the teacher to the learner and learning is described as “the acquisition of a new behaviour or the modification of behaviour as a result of teaching, training or tutoring”. Behavioural responses are reinforced through the use of an effective reinforcement schedule which breaks down material into a sequence of small tasks, consistently repeats the material, and provides positive reinforcement to correct responses (Skinner, 1976).  As such, teaching methods includes techniques such as learning by rote, ‘skill and drill’, and question and answer tasks that gradually increase in difficulty, as these techniques are able to break down material into smaller pieces and allow for the consistent repetition needed for learning to take place (Wray, 2010). It is also believed that teaching should be carefully planned and systematic, regularly testing learners’ behaviours in order to monitor their progress and provide feedback on their learning

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