Assignment help

澳洲塔斯马尼亚大学论文代写:气候变化

气候变化无疑是一种影响社会从个人和社区到整个地理/政治区域的所有方面的危机,具有环境,社会,安全,经济和政治后果。包括2,500名世界领先气候科学家的政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)共同认为气候变化是人类温室气体排放的结果(Doran&Kendall Zimmerman 2009)。自工业革命开始以来,全球气温呈指数级增长,平均气温上升1摄氏度,过去三四十年间气温升高最大(Liverman 2007)。更令人震惊的是,在其第四次评估报告中,IPCC宣布,与工业化前相比,温度上升超过2摄氏度将是极其危险的(Eckersley 2012)。预计增加超过2摄氏度将导致超过许多系统的适应能力的重大影响,并产生不可撤消的大规模全球推论(欧盟气候变化专家组2008)。在“联合国气候变化框架公约”哥本哈根首脑会议大部分未成功的情况下,制定了“哥本哈根协议”,该协议只是“承认”气专委的评估,即气候变暖不应超过2度,但不能承诺使其成为一个具体的多国目标(Eckersley,2012年)。随着气专委的严厉宣布,毫不含糊地,在解决气候变化危机方面寻求国际合作至关重要。

首先,全球生态危机是人为强迫的环境危机。人类活动,例如燃烧化石燃料和毁坏世界上二氧化碳汇,继续大大改变世界气候,影响世界生物多样性。全球生态危机显着改变了降雨模式,增加了极端天气事件的频率和无情性,加速了荒漠化,影响了水的可获得性,并促进了病虫害的传播(Saul等人,2012)。迅速增加的全球气温加速了北极冰盖的融化,促使海平面上升,预计到2100年将增加9-88厘米;另外,由于显着更高水平的CO 2吸收,海洋变得更酸性(IPCC 2007)。同样,据预测,亚热带将变干,而高纬度和深热带地区将获得更多的雨水(Held&Soden 2006)。国际社会必须共同应对气候变化危机,以减轻对世界各地生态系统和生物多样性健康的不可逆转的影响。不可或缺的是,全球社会必须继续致力于2摄氏度的温度目标,因为植物和动物群落可以逐渐迁移或适应,从而维持生物多样性(Saul等人2012)。然而,几度的气候变暖可能会超越生态灾难,导致生态系统搁浅,无法应对快速变化的情况,对人类安全构成重大威胁

澳洲塔斯马尼亚大学论文代写:气候变化

Climate change is undoubtedly a crisis affecting all aspects of society from individuals and communities to entire geographic/political regions, with environmental, societal, security, economic and political consequences. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) comprising of 2,500 of the world’s leading climate scientists collectively agree that climate change arose as a result of human greenhouse gas emissions (Doran & Kendall Zimmerman 2009). Since the commencement of the Industrial Revolution, global temperatures have increased exponentially, with average temperatures rising by 1 degree Celsius with highest increases in the past three or four decades (Liverman 2007). Even more alarmingly, in its Forth Assessment Report, the IPCC announced warming of more than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels would be extremely hazardous (Eckersley 2012). Increases greater than 2 degrees Celsius are projected to result in substantial impacts surpassing the adaptive capacity of many systems and generate irrevocable large scale global corollaries (EU Climate Change Expert Group 2008). During the largely unsuccessful UNFCC Copenhagen Summit, the Copenhagen Accord was developed which merely ‘recognised’ the IPCC’s assessment that warming shouldn’t exceed 2 degrees, but failed on all accounts to commit to make it a specific multinational objective (Eckersley 2012). With the dire proclamations of the IPCC, unequivocally, it remains paramount for international cooperation to be sought in addressing the climate change crisis.

Primarily, the global ecological crisis is an anthropogenically forced environmental crisis. Human induced activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation of the world’s carbon dioxide sinks continues to significantly alter the world’s climate and impact the world’s biodiversity. The global ecological crisis has significantly altered rainfall patterns, increasing the frequency and ruthlessness of extreme weather events, accelerated desertification, impacted upon water obtainability and instigated the spread of pests and diseases (Saul et al. 2012). Rapidly increasing global temperatures has accelerated the melting of Arctic ice sheets, prompting sea level rise, projected to rise by 9-88 centimetres by 2100; additionally, due to substantially higher levels of CO2 uptake, oceans are becoming more acidic (IPCC 2007). Similarly, it is predicted that subtropical zones will become drier whilst high latitude and deep tropical regions will receive more rain (Held & Soden 2006). It remains essential that the international community cooperatively responds to the climate change crisis to mitigate the irreversible effects on the health of ecosystems and biodiversity around the world. Indispensably, the global community must remain committed to the 2 degrees Celsius temperature target, as plant and animal communities could gradually migrate or adapt thereby maintaining biodiversity (Saul et al. 2012). However climatic warming of several degrees could transcend into an ecological catastrophe, leaving ecosystems stranded and unable to cope with rapidly changing conditions, posing a significant threat to human security (Williams, Jackson & Kutzbach2007).

发表评论