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在彼得一世,统治1682 – 1725年,国家继续扩大到波罗的海和国家命名为俄罗斯帝国。现代化在俄罗斯和欧洲的影响蔓延在彼得。他从莫斯科到圣彼得堡,西化的军事和教育。他引进西方思想和习俗产生民族主义反弹和创建“西化派”和“亲斯拉夫人的”之间的竞争,至今仍然存在。凯瑟琳大帝持续现代化国家从1762年到1796年,建立俄罗斯作为欧洲大国。1772年波兰分裂时,凯瑟琳隔离犹太人进入“和解的苍白。”


The area now known as Russia has experienced many changes in name, ideology, and rule over its long history. It is situated in the northern part of Asia bounded by Arctic and Pacific Oceans, Caucasus mountain ranges, and Europe. The country began its history as the Principality of Muscovy. The nation emerged in the 12th century after more than 200 years of Mongol control and grew by conquering surrounding territories. Ivan III ruled from 1462 to 1505, referring to this empire as the “Third Rome.” Ivan IV the Terrible, who ruled from 1530 to 1584, was the first official tsar. Boris Godunov followed Ivan the Terrible during the era titled the Time of Troubles. Mikhail Romanov established the Romanov Dynasty in 1613 with a period of stability and continued expansion.

Under Peter I, who ruled 1682-1725, the nation continued to expand to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. Modernization and European influences spread in Russia under Peter. He moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg and westernized the military and education. His introduction of Western ideas and customs generated nationalistic backlash and created the rivalry between “Westernizers” and “Slavophiles”, which still exists today. Catherine the Great continued modernizing the country from 1762 to 1796, establishing Russia as a European power. When Poland divided in 1772, Catherine segregated the Jewish population into “The Pale of Settlement.”