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爱泼斯坦intonates PI可能更成功晋升为学校整体计划的一部分,与学校相关的目标。例如,如果某一年学校的目标是提高数学成绩,她建议任何参与都有助于实现这一目标。可以说,这也有助于传达父母是重要的和学校计划的一部分的信息。她谈到了参与任何伙伴关系的代表的“行动小组”,并建议每年对目标进行审查。在苏格兰的学校里,尝试把这个与现有的家长会联系起来是有道理的。有,然而,研究(亨德森和马普,2002)这表明正式的PI可能包括中产阶级的父母,与工人阶级的父母更倾向于待在家。亨德森和马普研究美国父母样本但尽管如此,这些结果可能会质疑苏格兰的家长委员会的程度在苏格兰社会的多样性代表。苏格兰政府可能试图通过让所有父母成为“家长论坛”的自动成员来解决这个问题,允许他们随时接近家长委员会,以引起对学校问题的关注。然而,目前似乎还没有苏格兰的研究,试图找出所有家长是否满意家长论坛/理事会成立。这可能是苏格兰学校进一步研究的一个领域,爱泼斯坦的理论和模型似乎与苏格兰政府关于PI的指导方针相一致。尽管事实上,它是由一个美国,因此更可能是针对美国的政策写的,它似乎促进方面的参与,一直强调在苏格兰家长参与行为(在家学习,家校合作与父母表示),它强调与家长和社区倡导CFE的伙伴关系(苏格兰政府,2008),这似乎是适用于不同的目标和解释周围的皮。


Epstein intonates that PI is likely to be more successful when promoted as part of a whole school initiative, in correlation with the goals of the school. For instance, if the goal of the school for a particular year is to improve achievement in maths, she recommends that any participation should be conducive to this goal. It could be said that this also helps to convey the message that parents are important and part of the school plan. She talks of an ‘Action team’ of representatives involved in any partnership and recommends a yearly review of goals. In Scottish schools, it might make sense to try and tie this in with any existing parent councils. There is, however, research (Henderson & Mapp, 2002) which shows formal PI is likely to include middle class parents, with working class parents more inclined to be involved at home. The Henderson & Mapp study focused on a sample of American parents but nonetheless, these results might question the extent of which parent councils in Scotland are representative of the diversity in Scottish society. The Scottish Government has perhaps tried to address this issue by making all parents automatic members of a ‘Parent Forum’, allowing them to approach the Parent Council at any time to raise concerns regarding school issues. However, there appears to be no studies in Scotland at the moment attempting to find out if all parents are satisfied with the Parent Forum/Council set up. This may be an area for further research within Scottish schools.This said, Epstein’s theory and model appears to be consistent with Scottish Government guidelines on PI. Despite the fact that it is written by an American and therefore more likely to be aimed at American Policy, it does seem to promote the aspects involvement that have been emphasised in the Scottish Parental Involvement Act (Learning at home, Home/school partnership and Parental representation), it does give emphasis to partnerships with parents and community as advocated by CfE (Scottish Government, 2008) and it does seem to be adaptable to the differing goals and interpretations surrounding PI.

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