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然而,儿童和青少年可能缺乏所需的成熟度区分和鉴定理想的人格特质。他们倾向于信任点的话,更重视点赞美和批评,他们可能试图开发一组性格特征在同龄人视为理想的。这组特征甚至可能作为一个社会群体作为一个独特的标识符,债券。而归属感可能是一个esteem-booster,这种对齐的人格特质可以为少数民族的成员构成重大问题,在不久的将来,学习他们的集团,因此他们的身份,在更广泛的社会负面价值(Branthwaite &罗杰斯,1985)。


对等组的第二重要的角色是提供情感安全在前所未有的或威胁的情况下(Mikulincer &剃须刀,2009)。即使是一个简单的同伴没有语言交流和身体接触可以提供保障,提高信心。这一点尤为重要在童年和青春期时更大的转变,和同样明显的性别(Ammaniti等,2010)。这具有重要意义的孩子是否愿意探索新环境,尝试新行为和承担风险通常与增长(狗等,2011)。


However, children and adolescents may lack the maturity required to differentiate and indentify desirable personality traits. As they tend to trust peer remarks and place more importance on peer compliments and criticism, they might try to develop a set of personality traits perceived as desirable within their peer group. This set of characteristics may even serve as a unique identifier that bonds the social group as one. While the sense of belonging may be an esteem-booster, this alignment of personality traits can pose significant problems for members of minority groups who, in the near future, learn that their group, and therefore their identity, is negatively valued in the wider society (Branthwaite & Rogers, 1985).

Some argue that siblings’ support and family background affect one’s self-esteem and self-image (Milevsky, 2005). Yet, the time children and adolescents spend with their peer groups as well as the trust and newly-formed attachment enhances the role of peer groups. In fact, at times of vulnerability when they are faced with much stress and seemingly incessant workload, they are more likely to turn to their peers who experience similar circumstances. This is especially prominent among female adolescents (Welch & Houser, 2010). As such, peer groups play an imperative supportive feature in shaping an individual’s self-valuation and social capability due to the large amount of time spent together and the importance placed by children and adolescents on peer remarks.

The second crucial role of the peer group is the provision of emotional security under unprecedented or threatening situations (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2009). Even a simple presence of a peer without verbal communication or physical contact may provide reassurance and boost confidence. This is especially significant during late childhood and early adolescence when greater transitions take place, and is equally pronounced in both genders (Ammaniti et al, 2010). This can have important implications as to whether children are willing to explore a new environment, try new behaviour and take risks as typically associated with growth (Chien et al, 2011).