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有人认为(Brenecker和dreske,2000,p. 323),“如果我们认为我们的知识安排在完全一般水平的认知水平”,因此我们不能确定我们所知道的。在这种情况下,唯一的解决方案将是怀疑。


正如上面的澄清,我的主要焦点在本文将是怀疑论。在第一部分中,我将首先讨论了怀疑论的不同来源。其次,我会怀疑检查集中什么刺激哲学家回到怀疑方法的问题做一个简短的历史观。在第三节中,我将讨论各种来源的怀疑论的论点,并试图处理怀疑论的性质。在第四章中,我将探讨通过他的工作持怀疑态度,快速回顾笛卡尔的观点最后,在第五部分;我将探讨更多的细节,Descartes发展了怀疑论者的方法和他如何面对怀疑主义的挑战。您在MQ学习遇到难题了吗?不要纠结了!马上了解 悉尼论文代写 服务 帮您解决学术ASSIGNMENT难题!


Skepticism bears the meaning of investigation, and the best description that can be given to ancient skepticism is that it is a profound obligation towards investigation. Skepticism has one sole hallmark mark; it is doubt, and ancient skepticism is often known with the name of doubting things. However, skeptics were often confused because of the differences among notions and beliefs. Their objective was to find a solution to this problem by recognizing what is true and what is false. However, they find out that their investigation often take them ‘suspension of judgment, which brings its own peace of mind’

Williams (1988) argues that skepticism appears to be the only probable conclusion that resulted from philosophical speculation on our knowledge. In addition, it is also maintained (Okasha, 2003) that skepticism about the outside world has been derived from the presumption, raised by foundationalism, which claims that our senses provide us with data and experiences for our beliefs.

1.Ancient Skepticism” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (February 2010)

It is however postulated that “Without skeptical challenges, we might become complacent about understanding ourselves as knowledge-acquiring agents. Skeptics raise some hard questions, and they have led philosophers to make significant revisions in their thinking about acceptable methods of knowledge acquisition” (Moser, Mulder and Trout, 1989, P.10).

It is argued (Brenecker and Dreske, 2000, p. 323) that “if we think of our knowledge as arranged in completely general levels of epistemic levels”, we are unable therefore to determine what we know. The only solution in this case will be in skepticism.

It seems that skepticism is only possible result that we may obtain from our speculation on our knowledge of the world (William, 2006, p. 415).

As clarified above, my main focus in this paper will be on skepticism. In the first section, I will start with discussing the different sources of skepticism .In the second, I will give a brief historical view on skepticism examining the questions that concentrate on what stimulated philosophers to return to the skeptic approach. In the third section, I will raise a discussion on the various sources of skepticism argument and attempt to deal with the nature of skeptical arguments. In fourth section, I will shift to investigate the views of Descartes through a fast review of his work on skepticism, finally, in the fifth section; I will explore, with more details, the skeptic approach developed by Descartes and how he managed to confront the challenges of skepticism.