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英国研究生论文 Project Scheduling Construction Essay 屋面工程的生产率

Problem Statement

As the main technical agencies for the Government of Malaysia, Public Work Department (PWD) or Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) entrusted to implement development projects throughout the country. It is the goal of JKR to ensure that the organization is run efficiently and effectively in order to achieve the vision, mission and objectives of the department. JKR is responsible to ensure that all the projects must be implemented well, complete on time, within the budget and provide quality products. In 9th Malaysian Plan (RMK 9), most of JKR projects cannot be deliver on time. For example, about 41% of projects in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur cannot be delivering on time which is most of it are due to wrongly estimate the duration of the construction activities in project scheduling. It is also regarding to lack of competency of JKR officers in reviewing and giving advice to contractors especially in preparing realistic project’s work program. This problem can be categorized as serious matter and give high impact to the overall performance of JKR due to unsatisfaction of client with JKR’s reputation. As the biggest technical government agency, there should be a way to solve the problem so that it will improve JKR image and give high reputation to the clients.

1 Master Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

2 Supervisor, Professor Dr, Lecturer of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

There should be a standard productivity rate of each activity in the project in order to guide the contractor and the JKR supervision team to plan and implement the projects successfully. Therefore, the study on productivity rate of roof works for building project scheduling as an effort and starting point to develop the standard productivity rate of project activities for JKR’s projects. In fact, this study is consistent with JKR strategies and action plan in achieving Effective Implementation of Malaysia 5 – Years Plan especially to ensure that projects are implemented through appropriate implementation methodologies to meet customer needs and outcomes. One of the action plans stated in JKR Strategic Framework is to establish effective project performance tracking system which is JKR must analyzing all data that related to the project in order to improve JKR project implementation (JKR, 2007).

The Objectives

The aim of this study is to establish the productivity rate of roof works for JKR building projects scheduling. In order to achieve this, the following are the objectives of the study:

To identify the factors that influence the productivity of roof works

To establish the relationship between influence factors and productivity of roof works

To develop a metrics of productivity rate for roof works

Scope of Study

There are certain limitations to be follow to ensure that this study is completed within the time frame given. Firstly, this study only takes into consideration on all projects which implement in central region of Peninsular Malaysia i.e. projects in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur and JKR Selangor. Second, the sample for this study is concentrate only in school projects which are the most of JKR projects implementation in 9th Malaysian Plan. Since standard design was using in school projects, the area of roof is fixed. This given the standardization to estimate the productivity rate for roofing works referring to the floor area involved.

Roof trusses in construction projects can be classified in timber roof trusses, hot rolled roof trusses, cold form roof trusses and etc. The third limitation of this study is only taking into consideration of the cold form roof trusses because most of the school projects are using this type of trusses. In addition, JKR already has a list of 22 names of cold form roof trusses suppliers which their design have been reviewed and approved by the JKR Structure Expert Division. This list is for the JKR officers in state and district office to choose for their projects especially school projects. Forth, part of roof covering for this study only take into consideration one(1) types which is concrete roof tiles including insulations.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Recently, construction productivity is on a long-term slide and it is recognized as industry challenge. System, people, materials, information and energy must flow effectively and efficiently to produce its objective at high productivity to complete construction at lowest possible cost with possible shortest timeframe (Picard, 2005). Productivity is critically important in construction industry. Many researchers have expressed their concern over productivity in construction industry. Defining productivity is not a simple task to everybody. Different people will give different definition and understanding. Most of them agreed that marketable output was essentially the main measure used.

Increased productivity was a leading concern to all Committee stakeholders such as users, contractors, and construction labor unions and led by the owner. The construction users emphasized the need of collecting data directly relevant to productivity improvement. The Committee was concluded that the front-line construction foreman/supervisor would be a reliable source of information. These informants would be asked to provide their judgment of the greatest impediments to a productive construction project (Tucker, 2003).

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