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Congestive Cardiac failure (CCF) also known as heart failure is the condition in which the heart is unable to pump adequate blood to the body due to the loss of pumping action of the heart (p.6). In CCF, the weakened cardiac muscle is not able to eject the blood out of the heart very well. This leads to the improper emptying of the left ventricle and may cause high pressure in the atria the adjuscent veins (pulmonary veins)(p.3). As a result blood may back up the lungs, liver,gastro intestinal tract, and arms and legs (upper lower extremities) (p.27). This may affect their normal function and retain more fluid and salt in the body causing oedema (p.12)

Heart failure occurs due to the ventricular became congested with blood causing pulmonary oedema and high pulmonary pressure(p.36). To compensate the cardiac muscle hypertrophies eventually resulting in decreased ventricular compliance. Increased muscle mass impedes oxygenation of the heart muscle which leads to decreased contraction force and heart failure (p.36)

This department is speciolised to treat the clients who having cardiac disorder. Cardiology department includes the coronary care and step- down unit, the cardiac catheter labbortaries, a cardiology ward, a cardiology day ward, and the non invasive and diagnostic service. It provides care to emergencyand elective patients with heart disease(papper)

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