Research on resilience focused predominantly on the associated protective factors that facilitate the development of adaptive functioning in relation to long-term exposure of high risk factors. The notion of resilience becomes most evident in the view of extreme high-risk environments, such as for example the exposure to war, where external protective factors, such as strong social community and economical security are absent. Recently, Eggerman and Panter-Brick (2010) conducted a qualitative study that investigated the development of resilience and sense making of adversity in Afghanistan, where “political and military conflicts have led to massive disruptions of livelihoods and educationâ€¦with Afghan families endured pervasive poverty, economic instability, and persistent violence” (p. 2). Surprisingly, it was found that the notion of hope and trust in a better future assumed the role of a protective factor and thus allowed Afghan children and families to adapt positively to the risk of daily stressors and war adversity. Thus, children who adapt positively to the stressors are perceived as high in resilience, which prevent them to develop of mental and physical ill health as a cause and consequence of material poverty and war trauma, whereas children low in resilience do not adapt positively to the stressors and develop as a consequence maladaptive behaviour and psychological problems.