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澳洲墨尔本论文代写:定义什么是“策略”

在探索了创新的本质后,现在就可以用“策略”来定义什么是“策略”,并简单地研究一下它为什么重要。战略的本质一直是一个有争议的问题。在安东尼·亨利(2008)的《战略管理》一书中找到了一个有助于理解这个概念的有用的起点,在那里他提供了40年来关于这个问题的激烈辩论的概要。他首先概述了这一点:“有一种共识,即战略的作用是为一个组织实现竞争优势。”他接着说:“竞争优势可以被认为是一个让组织更好地满足消费者需求的组织。”[和]源头可能来自许多因素包括其产品或服务,它的文化,它的技术,其过程”(亨利,2008年,p . 4)。这是一个重要的问题对于一个业务因为策略可以使一个可持续的竞争优势将允许一个组织产生非凡的回报,并将对组织的整体性能有明显的影响:一个有效的策略可以增加价值(Kay,1995)。这就是创新在战略中的作用的本质——它往往是可持续竞争优势的关键组成部分。例如,Grant(2005年,p . 513)从经验证据中观察到,在3M、沃尔玛和丰田等成功公司的基础上,“最终,唯一可持续的竞争优势就是创造新的竞争优势的能力”。在现代“知识经济”中,有固定承诺创新的公司似乎成功了。例如,苹果公司——这篇文章深入研究的公司——已经成为战略创新的代名词。在《财富》杂志美国最受尊敬的公司2008年,苹果高居榜首。一位资深评论员用以下的话反映了这一发展。

澳洲墨尔本论文代写:定义什么是“策略”

Having explored the nature of innovation, it is useful now to define what is meant by ‘strategy’, and examine briefly why it matters. The nature of strategy has traditionally been a contentious issue. A helpful starting point for understanding the concept is found in Anthony Henry’s (2008) Understanding Strategic Management, where he provides a synopsis of forty years of heated debate on the issue. He first outlines that, ‘there is agreement that the role of strategy is to achieve competitive advantage for an organisation’. He then continues: ‘Competitive advantage may usefully be thought of as that which allows an organisation to meet consumers’ needs better than its rivals . . . [and] its source may derive from a number of factors including its products or services, its culture, its technological know-how, and its processes’ (Henry, 2008, p. 4). It is an important issue for a business because a strategy which can enable a sustainable competitive advantage will allow an organisation to generate super-normal returns, and will have a distinct impact on overall organisational performance: an effective strategy can add value (Kay, 1995).Herein lies the essence of the role of innovation in strategy – it is often a key component of a sustainable competitive advantage. For instance, Grant (2005, p. 513) has observed from empirical evidence based on such successful companies as 3M, Wal-Mart, and Toyota that, ‘ultimately, the only sustainable competitive advantage is the ability to create new sources of competitive advantage’. Firms with a fixed commitment to innovation seem to prosper in the modern ‘knowledge economy’. For instance, Apple – a company which this essay examines in more depth below – has become synonymous with strategic innovation. In Fortune’s America’s Most Admired Companies 2008, Apple topped the chart. A senior commentator reflected on this development with the following remark。

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