Literacy in Indonesia has also become an important role in educational
goal. Based on Kurikulurn Miiatan La/cal Sekolah Dasar/Madnisah fbtidaiyah Provinsi ibukota Jakana (2006). English teaching-learning process held
on primary school is intended to develop students’ English skill in order to be able to communicate for certain literacy level. In this case, the literacy is in performative level. According to Wells (1987) in the performative level, one is able to read, write, listen, and speak through the symbols which she/he has kunwu. The literacy level fr this study, define the ability of students to use English to develop their academic skills such as to read learning materials, to express their ideas in simple written English, and to pertbnn simple oral communication ‘with the English teacher and their peers, to develop self- awareness through English for daily concerns such as awareness to read public notices, food and beverage labels, medical labels, and to entertain themselves through English like singing a song, listening to stories, and other enjoyable children activities. A primary school student is assumed to be literate when she or he is able to do such activities with simple Englisk School through their curriculum can facilitate students to accomplish such ability by maximizing the teachers’ role, providing meaningful learning materials and learning activities. In addition, any learning effort is meant to enhance the students’ independence in order to support. their basic literac development.
In spite of the importance need to develop basic literacy through formal education, there has not been enough number of studies concern on it. Nunan (1989: 152) explained that idealized curriculum process is for learners to be grouped according to some common criterion or need’, and lbr teacher negotiate content, materials and methodology with the learner. In other words, teachers should kiow the needs and interests of the students. If the teachers want to create
learning experience based on the students’ need and interest, they should adjust. the content of the lesson, the materials and the methodology with the students’ need and interest. In line to this idea, Hudelson (1994: 256-7 as cited by Madya, 2004:202) stated that children not only learn through hands-on-experiences but also experience which enable them to interact with and leanl from other people. Learn through hands-on-experiences cr be one way out froir what Nunan had been suggested in creating the idealized curriculum process.
The point of teaching-learning here is based on what the children have experienced with the language, not on what they have known about the language. The learning experiences should be based on the children’s needs and interest. Scarino (1994) in Teaching implication of the Eighi Principles of Language Learning stated that learners learn a language best when they are exposed to sociocultural data direct experience of the culture(s) embedded with the target language. Further, she explained that learners leani a language best when they are treated as individuals with their own needs and interests. For example. the students are asked to make a chores table based on their daily chores, they are asked to tell stoly about their personal experience, etc.
Studies on English at the primary school level students were done more related with students’ learning activities preference (Siska Rizkiani, 2006) and their attitudes through learning experiences (Eudah Asika Dewi, 2006). Most of the studies were conducted by survey. The result from the studies showed that most of the students (77.76%) prefeffed learning activities by reading storybooks and doing activities in group. This implied that students prefer to have enjoyable
language learning experiences to learn about. the language. They tended to have very positive attitude toward English, means that in spite of English is a new subject for them and many shortcomings in conducting the English class, yet the students like this subject very much. Mother study conducted by Efrmni (2004) showed That students’ attitude towards English were positive, the most influencing factors to the students’ attitude was the learning materials employed in the class, the teacher, and the students’ motivation. It means that interesting experiences as result of the learning materials used in the teaching-learning activity give most impression to students as the young learner of English as a foreign language. The last a study conducted by Yushadi Taufik (2007) described about students’ organizational skills in writing through graphic organizer. The resdt showed that through graphic organizer students’ writing organization (focus on main idea) was improved. In this study, the students were exposed with activities to express ideas through brainstonning, using graphic organizers as ge-writing activities.
Efforts from the English teachers to enhance basic literacy development haven’t been optimum either. Alwasilah (2000), noted that most of primary- school teachers in Indonesia teach elementary-school students like they teach adult; students are more exposed on the language aspects such as grammar. meaning, structures, etc. Little touch was given to the need and curiosity of students as young learners.
Further, Alwasilah (2000) reminded that the role of learning experiences and learning materials are prominent in developing student& basic literacy, It should be noted that students between II -12 years old have an optimum ability to