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芝加哥essay代写 Basic Literacy In Indonesia


As a matter of fact, in Indonesia the English teaching-learning process has not facilitated the developnieitt of students’ literacy yet. According Madya (2004: 194) instead of teaching English through joyful activities, the teachers as observed by Bambang Sugeng (2000), Husna (1998), Hanie (1997), Nafsiah Indarwati (2001), and Suyati (2002) taught grammar too much, used translation without any context, and gave students too much tiring work.

In addition, Alwasilah (2000: 80) argues that teachers in primary-school level tend to teach the children like they teach adult. On the contrary, children and adults are different; therefore, teaching students in primary school is different from teaching adults. It is supported by Hanner (2002:38) who states the characteristics of young learners in learning, they are:

a Students respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words.

b. They often learn indirectly rather than directly – that is they take in information from all sides, learning from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught

c. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear ami cruciallv have a chance to

touch and interact with.

d. They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosIty about the world around them.

e. They have a need for individual attention and approval from the teacher.

£ They are keen to talk about themselves, and respond well to learning that uses themselves and their own live as main topics

in the classroom.

g They have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging the can easily get &we&

At this leve], students should be provided by a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages them to get information from a variety of sources. Students need to worl individually and in grnup in order to develop a good relationship.


However, it is also exposed by Snyanto and Chodijah (2002) that in reality, there have been many schools adapting English as local content in theft cuniculuni regardless of the resources (that they have). Many schools, because of theft limited resources, just appoint one of the teachers who seem to like English, use some proper materials and rely on the assessment on the test from Kanwil,

From the explanation above, it can be seen that language exposure that might the students have during the teaching-learning process is minimum and the students have not been engaged in teaching-learning process yet. While according to Alwasilah (2000), Hudelson (1994), and Pellegrini and (3aida (1998), to promote the development of children basic literacy, they should be given the language exposure through learning activities that they have in or out of the classroom.

Nevertheless, English in primary-school level got positive responses from the society, whether the schools, students, or parents. It can be seen from the eagerness of school in providing English as their local content. As stated in Suyanto and Chodijah (2002) that many schools in Indonesia start teaching English to their students even from the first grade. A survey that conducted by Suyanto (2001 as cited on Suyanto and Chadijah. 2002 :5) in ten provinces showed that students who are attending English classes have positive attitudes towards the lesson, 61.7% students have learned English in the primary school. most of them stated that they like studying English (87.6%) although many of them (62.9) have difficulty. Rachrnaianti (1998) also exposed the similar phenomena that thc response of Enghsn is very positive, it can be seen trom the


courses that spread eveiywhere and the implementation of giving English in many primary schools.

Above of all, the policy of giving English subject started from primaiy school level got positive response whether from the students, schools, and parents. But, the matter is whether the English teaching-learning process have provide students with enough exposure since the English subject is a subject in primary- school, which can develop students’ basic literacy.

B. Related Researches on Basic Literacy Development

Basic literacy has been a great concern of the entire world. Some studies have been done related to basic literacy. Christie and Misson (1998: 15) in their book titled Framing Issues in Literacy Education explain about young children ‘entering literate world’ they expose various aspects of eaiiy litemey learning. Literacy development started by decoding symbols like pictures thus the students start to develop their literacy by speaking and using metalanguage in which they get from the book. Here, they start to use metalanguage, they first should get the meaning from the text.

In Hawkins’ article entitled Becoming a Student: Identity Work and Academic Li/erodes in Early Schooling (2005: 59), argues that the ability to engage successfully with academic literacies was distinct from their ability to engage successfully in social interactions. The language and literacy development was not necessarily detemiined by economic and cultural capital nor by their social status within the classroom.


However, Hudelson (1994: 151) in her journal entitled Literacy

Deveiopmentfor Second Language Children states that:

the literacy practices such as; the utilization of dialogue journals, the creation of personal narratives, the focus on collaborative work in the study of important content, the practice of reading aloud from the wealth of children’s literature, the utilization of predictable books, reflect children’s language and literacy development. These practices have several common characteristic:

& they make learners active participant in their own learning

b. they give learners opportunities to use end and written language for a variety purposes

c. they promote interaction with others as central to learning

d. they involve learners in taking risks and being supported in their risk taking by adults and peers istho respond to their efforts

e. they necessitate the organization of learner-centered language- rich environments that are both linguistically stimulating and

intellectually challenging and rigorous places for children to spend

their time.

While Pellegdui and Galda (1998: ) in their book entitled The Development of School-Based Literacy: A Social Ecological Perspective, a case study was conducted on l3etty Shockle’s class for about. two years, concludes that:

Recognition of the fact that school-based literacy and literate language are both lannuage variants which are nor better or worse than other variants but having access to them also provides access to power, resources and increased probability of success in school. joint book reading can be used as way in which children leant the vocabulary and behaviors associated with school-based llteracy. peers can be helpful in teaching literacy..the children’s close relationships with peers may maximize learning. Rather than separating thends daring instructional periods, as some teachers tempted to do, ste suggest that children should be placed with their friends and encouraged, not discouraged, to interact,

In addition. Cahono (2003: 236) in his journal entitled Air/a and Her

Mainstream Classroom: A Case Study qf a Young English Language Learner’s

Literacy Development concludes that the classroom environment and the variety of literacy learning activities (e.g. reading, hook-reading, home-reading, reading


and summarizing, handwriting; spelling exercises, story writing, dairy writing, etc) have been supported on English literacy learning. In addition, the teacher’s encouragement was also supported in literacy learning. Case study was employed for nine-months on Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia.

From Hudelson, Pellegrini and Galda, and Cahyono’s suggestion conclude

that students’ basic literacy development can be Thciitated by giving them various

activities related to their interest and world, engaging them in activities, getting them into close relationship with their peers, and teachers’ encouragement.

The target of students’ basic literacy in this study is students’ ability to develop their reading and writing skills in regards to the life skills development by putting them as the active participant of the education with the principle of life long education. In this case, life long education refers to the students’ awareness in developing their ability – to read and write – through learning by themselves whether in or out of the classroom. This can be supported through English teaching learning process.

In terms of supporting basic literacy, English teaching learning process should be involved the students iii academically literate activity and socially literate activity. Academically literate activity here such as: read learning materials, express their ideas in simple written English, and perfonn simple oral communication with the English teacher and their peers. While socially literate activity here means, such as: read public notices, food and beverage labels,



commercials, sing English songs, listen to English story and other enjoyable children activity.

This conceptual framework will lead the writer in treating the study in data collection. The focus of the study is the learning experiences which are employed to support students’ basic literacy development in the respective case. The data collection would be mainly to portray whether the learning experiences that took place in real classroom process have supported the students’ basic literacy.



This chapter describes how this study is carried out. It. covers the material

and subject of the study, the design of the study, the instrument of the study, data collection method, data collection procedures, and data analysis.

A. Unit of Analysis

Al Material

The material of the study is all the experiences that students get with English iii terms of interacting with teachers such as: greeting, answering questions, asking questions, suggesting and doing class assignment, interacting with peers such as: conduct class assignments, joke, have a chat, etc and other purposes such as: selecting class activities, finding extra learning materials, and entertaining themselves.

A.2 Subject

Fourth and fifth garde of primary-school students in SD Negeri Tegai Lega 1 and 2, Bogor who have been involved in English for six and eight semesters. This selected subject is based on the assumption that students have a great desire in learning English though with all the minimum facilities and improper learning experience& They were observed, interviewed and given questionnaires in relation to data verification.

Both material and subject had been being studied since April 2007.



B. Design of the Study

The study will be conducted by a case study in order to investigate learning experiences happen during English teaching-learning process in the classroom.

C. Methods of Data CoDection

There are three kinds of instruments that employed in data collection of this study. They include observation as the main data collection, interview and questionnaire.

a. Observation

To get the detail, accurate and deep information on language teaching and learning process, classroom observations were conducted.

b. Interview

In order to support the information about English learning experiences happen in classroom, the subjects were interviewed to make in-depth discussion.

c. Questionnaire

In order to support the information from the observation data and interview, questionnaires were given to the students.


B. Data Collection Procedures

The research is conducted with the following procedures:

a. The researcher selected schools that became the setting of the study. Then, selected students that become the participants.

b. The reseach was done based on the three instruments. The first, teaching- learning precesss, where learning experiences happen, are observed. The

observation was carried on by recording and taking fleidnotes. The second step was interviewing some subjects as sample. it was meant to

gain data on thier comment about. English subject

c. In order to support the data gained from the observation and interview, questionnaires were given to get more detailed information on students’ preference learning experiences.

B. Data analysis

The methodology is case study using qualitative data. The writer gathered data from classroom observation, interview and also questionnaire. The observation data were analyzed by transcribing data of learning activities process during 5 meetings. While the data of interview mid questionnaire was interpreted to support the classroom observation. Data obtain in this study were mainly descriptive data which has been narrated. To interpret the narration, which similar with what had been done by Bailey (1996) and Woods (1996), would be done as following procedures: