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迪肯代写ASSIGNMENT:发展性协调障碍有心理社会影响

迪肯代写ASSIGNMENT:发展性协调障碍有心理社会影响

发展是最重要的路径建立生长的人类通过成年和未来的职业(Harris,2008)。每一个父母都会帮助他们的孩子取得成功,变得聪明,独立。然而,有很大的不同,能够做一些事情作为一个家长或做一些事情作为一个孩子。如果孩子在一开始就没有正确的甚至基本的来源,他们长大后不能变得成熟和健康。儿童生活的早期阶段有许多类型的发展障碍。自闭症、Cerebal palsy、Asperger综合征、唐氏综合征和DCD不同方面的症状和原因但是它们都显示身体的协调问题。大多数这些疾病首先被家长和教师注意到,在某一点上意识到他们的孩子有一些问题,可能与同伴之间的关系不好,贫困的教育成就或较少参与活动。低运动能力在孩子的心理问题大多视为孩子们和他们的家庭的社会和情感问题的各种风险加班(斯金纳与Piek,2001)。所有的含义已被记录,特别是在儿童发育性协调障碍。

发展性协调障碍(DCD)是一个明显的障碍的儿童由于他们的运动协调能力差,发展到(2003 Mandich和polatejko,)。首先是确认在DSM-III-R在1987笨拙儿童综合征(美国精神病学协会,2000)。此后的障碍是由不同的名字,如“笨拙”称,“身体的笨拙,发育障碍,和最常用的“赤字的关注,电机控制和感知”(湿)(塞马克和Larkin,2002)。修订后的定义在DSM-IV 1994最后描述了它作为儿童DCD智力正常水平,无病史,有困难进行适当的正常年龄水平的电机任务显示电机的尴尬(Fox和斋,1996)。DCD是常见的诊断在5岁之后主要影响5%与占主导地位的男孩,据Dyspaxia Fundation学校的孩子们(1998)平均在6.5岁时诊断。有趣的是,研究人员仍然无法将任何一个原因归咎于这种疾病的发生。有各种理论,其可能的原因和一定的这些理论指出一个手指的生物原因,如产前并发症的婴儿-如严重的情况下,胎儿营养不良(福特,1960)。早产和低出生体重也被视为该病的可能的原因,但没有证据支持这些索赔(Ford,1960)。研究人员同意的是,这些儿童往往会体验到学习、行为和情感上的问题。DCD相比没有运动困难的孩子很难执行简单任务,如系鞋带、扣扣子的衣服,接球。在某些情况下,儿童DCD失败学习一些非常重要的大运动技能,如散步,跑步,爬到更晚的阶段的生活与同龄人相比。DCD的赤字通常会一直持续到青少年到成年。对于一个运动技能的孩子DCD是非常困难的一些孩子特别活动不感兴趣。笨拙的孩子的父母表明运动困难条件影响家庭生活和日常生活(嘉,1997)。人们已经注意到,那些孩子们也可能避免与同龄人交往,导致缺乏动机,降低自尊。焦虑,友谊的重要性,发挥孩子的自尊心已经进行了许多研究人员发现了一些证据,但不一定有儿童DCD的社会心理后果。的原因可能是研究的背景下,方法和方式的参与者如何选择,这不同的结果的一些研究。自尊和确切地说,发展性协调障碍儿童如何评估自己和他们的感觉如何,他们的能力被认为是最有争议的,并在下一节将更详细的评估,心理学家感兴趣的一个关键。

迪肯代写ASSIGNMENT:发展性协调障碍有心理社会影响

Development is the most important path establishing the growth of humans through adulthood and future career (Harris, 2008). Every parent does everything to help their child to achieve successes, become smart, and independent. However there is big difference in being able to do something as a parent or do something as a child. If the child does not possess the right and even basic sources at the beginning they cannot become mature and healthy when they grow up. There are many types of developmental disorders beginning in early stage of child’s life. Autism, Cerebal palsy, Asperger syndrome, Down syndrome and DCD varies in terms of symptoms and causes however all of them display problems with physical coordination. Most of these disorders are noticed firstly by parents and teachers who at some point realize that there is something wrong with their child which could be poor relationships with peers, poor educational achievement or less engagement in activities. Children with low motor competence are at risk of variety of psychology difficulties which are mostly seen as social and emotional problems in children themselves and their families overtime (Skinner & Piek, 2001). All of the implication has been recorded especially in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a marked impairment disorder noticed in children due to their poor development of motor coordination skills (Mandich and Polatejko, 2003). Firstly it was recognized in DSM-III-R as clumsy child syndrome in 1987 (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Since then the disorder have been known by various names such as ‘Clumsy’, ‘Physical awkwardness’, ‘Developmental Dyspraxia’, and the most commonly used ‘Deficits in Attention, Motor Control and Perception’ (DAMP) (Cermak & Larkin, 2002). Revised definition in DSM-IV in 1994 finally described it -DCD as the motor awkwardness showed by children with normal level of intelligence and no medical history that have difficulties to perform some motor tasks appropriate to the normal age level (Fox and Lent, 1996). DCD is commonly diagnosed after age 5 mostly affects 5 % of school children with a predominance of boys which according to Dyspaxia Fundation (1998) on average diagnosed at the age of 6.5. Interestingly the researchers are still unable to attribute any single cause for the occurrence of this disorder. There are various theories regarding its possible causes and certain of these theories point a finger to biological causes such as prenatal complications of the baby – like a severe case of fetal malnutrition (Ford, 1960). Prematurity and low birth weight is also seen to be possible causes for this disorder but there is no evidence supporting most of these claims (Ford, 1960). What was agreed by researchers is that these groups of children tend to experience learning, behavioral and emotional problems. Children with DCD compared to children with no motor difficulties have difficulty performing simple tasks such as tying their shoelace, buttoning clothes, catching a ball. In certain cases children with DCD fail to learn certain very important large motor skills such as walking, running, and climbing till a much later stage in life when compared with kids their age. The deficit of DCD usually continues through adolescence into adulthood. For a child with DCD motor skills are very difficult some children are uninterested in particular activities. Parents of clumsy children indicate that the condition of motor difficulties has impact on family life and daily routines (Chia, 1997). It has been noticed that those children might also avoid socializing with peers leading to lack of motivation, decreased self-esteem. The importance of anxiety, friendship, play and self-esteem of children has been studied by many researchers who found some but not certain evidence that the DCD has one of these psycho-social consequences for the child. The reason for that could be the context of study, methods and the way of how participants were chosen, which differed the outcome of some studies. Self esteem and exactly how children with developmental coordination disorder evaluate themselves and how they feel about their competence was found to be the most controversial and a key of interest for psychologists which will be in more detail evaluated in the next section.

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