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环境科学论文代写 可持续发展与环境挑战

环境科学论文代写 可持续发展与环境挑战

2. The definition of environmental crime and the legal stance of environment:

Environmental crime is any action or neglecting an action that causes some serious dangers to the environment and puts human life at stake (Taqizadehe Ansari, 1998).

Based on their nature, environmental crimes generally are divided into two categories:

Perpetration of crimes against the animates of the human environments which include all species of plants and animals.

Perpetration of crimes against the inanimate elements of the environment including weather, soil, prey, and chemical pollutions (the same). The importance and the stance of the rights of the environment have appeared in the 50th principal of the constitutional law; as environmental issues are some ultra-sectional cases, all members of the society, especially organizations and institutes should try to preserve the environment so far as possible for them and don’t do terrible damages to it by their activities.

The early regulations like Civil Act (passed in 1929), Prey Act (passed in 1957), and Prey and Fishery Act (passed in 1968) were just related to the natural environment; and the first comprehensive act partly including all aspects of the environment that lead to some changes in the structure of the Organization of Environment Conservation then was approved and Environment Conservation and Improvement Act (passed in1975) is an instance of which (Mir Mohammad Sadeqi, 2002).

In addition, in the Act of First Development Program, in order to prevent environment pollutions and rendering caused damages, some special approaches had been considered like dedicating 1out of 1000 of incomes from selling products of factories and workshops of the country to activities related to conserving the environment.

3. Globalization and the development of environmental damages:

The process of globalizing the capitals and socio-economical benefits which is called” Globalization” due to the lack of providing essential provisions for compensating its damages will lead to increasing cultural, economical, social, and political gap between the developed countries and the developing ones.

The process of globalization in the conditions of structural differences resulting from industrial gap not only increases social inequalities and intensifies the gap of mass poverty both in local and international level, but also aggravates environmental challenges and the crisis inside the society and outside it , specially in adjacent countries of world system( as Waller Stein has said).

The process of globalizing with respect to the economic, social, and cultural implications indicates of integrating local and national societies in international markets and unifying common cultural characteristics of all societies is interrelated with the new wave of reconstruction (Zahedi, 2004).

In this situation, the Third World nations become the rural margin (adjacent) of the world system and their little hope in changing stable economic and environmental structures comes in disappointment.

There is no doubt that the only ways of getting rid of this bitter and disappointing horizon include: expanding the global awareness, increasing the political culture of the world and environment moralities, considering and rereading environmental penalties as clear as possible, developing participatory democracies, and reinforcing the social capitals. Otherwise, the gap between the North and South poles or central and adjacent nations grows increasingly, so the perspective of the environmental challenges and crisis which arise from the world Neo- Liberalism will become bitter than what has been in the past.

4. Sustainable development and its aspects:

Although there are many perceptions of the concept of the sustainable development, this perception is universally agreed upon that sustainable development is a process of development which first of all is ”ecologically” favorite.

Lexically, ” sustainable development” is a sort of development which can endure for a limited period, and the concept of sustainability often is regarded in terms of the renewable resources like jungles, marine resources, postures, soil and water, as well as the human force. (Zahedi, 2004). According to the definition of UNEP, sustainable development is a development which meets the needs of present generations without endangering the abilities of future generations in supplying their needs (the same). In the following figures we have ” sustainable development” versus ” unsustainable development” which their distinguish features are the quality of connection and the organic relation between resources and activities.