Environmental 代写:Indian National Action Plan On Climate Change
National Mission for a “Green India”. Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture. The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
(h) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change. To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration. It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.
Merits of the National Action Plan
Helps in Setting Targets for the Future Through Individual Missions. National Action Plan on Climate is significant in helping to set targets for the future through its eight missions that focus on energy efficiency, development of cleaner and renewable energy options, scientific and technological solutions and funding for all these missions.
4. Thrust on Solar Energy. The thrust on solar energy is the most promising msn. The solar energy sector had been lagging behind while the wind power was given a boost. The solar power sector would now get a boost based on private sector investments to create 1000 mw of power generation capacity by the end of the 12th Plan Period – 2017. Solar energy, when combined with innovative lighting devices, can significantly reduce energy demand.
5. Mandatory for Power Grids to Purchase Renewable Energy from Producers. It makes it mandatory for power grids to purchase renewable energy for producers and sets up progress targets to do so in the coming yrs.
6. Blueprint for Market-Based Tools to Achieve the Goals. The Action Plan on Climate Change laid out a blueprint for market-based tools to be used to achieve the goals. The Plan gives fiscal incentives to movement industry, manufacturers and consumers towards a low-carbon path. Energy efficient appliance manufacturers would get tax benefits and industries would be aided to move to better technologies.The auto sector would be subjected to fuel-efficient regulations and also be required to start recycling to reduce waste and save on manufacturing of carbon-heavy components.
7. Seeks to Address Sustainable Development Rather than Immediate Emission Cuts. The Plan on Climate Change seeks to address the stress on sustainable development rather immediate emission cuts by laying emphasis on efforts to adopt cleaner technology and invest in less polluting alternatives.
Drawbacks of the National Action Plan
8. Does Not Set Specific National Emissions Target for GHGs. Critics point out that it does not set any specific national emissions target for reduction in GHGs. The developed countries including the US want India to set specific targets for cut in GHG emissions. The Plan also lacks sector-wise targets. The Kyoto Protocol exempts developing countries from specific emissions targets but India would not be able to postpone specific reductions in emissions beyond 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires.
9. Lack of Transparency in the Preparation of National Action Plan on Climate Change. Environmentalists and civil society groups have criticised the lack of transparency in the preparation of the Plan. It was pointed out that climate change would define the future of the country’s people, environment and economy. Any policy document that intends to govern the manner in which India addresses the issue should be given adequate space and time for public debate.
10. Demand for the Draft Plan to be Opened for Public Debate. Civil society groups and environmentalists demanded that the draft Plan on Climate Change be opened for public debate. The matter should be discussed widely with all stakeholders and a process for regional public consultations be set in place. It would ensure that the resulting document reflects the broader views of the Indian people, and not of a few highly placed officials or experts, according to the letter addressed to the Prime Minister.
Addressing climate change and sustainable development
11. Sustainable development has become part of all climate change policy discussions at the global level, particularly due to adoption of Agenda 21 and the various Conventions resulting from the UNCED-1992. The generally accepted and used definition as given by the Brundtland Commission is ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development has become an integrating concept embracing economic, social and environmental issues. Sustainable development does not preclude the use of exhaustible natural resources but requires that any use be appropriately offset. This concept is not acceptable to many developing countries since it seems to disregard their aspirations for growth and development. Further, sustainable development cannot be achieved without significant economic growth in the developing countries
12. Three critical components in promoting sustainable development are economic growth, social equity and environmental sustainability. The question often asked is, should the current economic growth (GNP, employment, etc.) be sacrificed for long-term environmental conservation? Policy makers in developing countries often perceive a tradeoff between economic growth and environmental sustainability. However, there is a growing evidence to show that environmental conservation for sustainability of natural resources is not a luxury but a necessity when considering long- term economic growth and development, particularly in the least developed countries. The decline and degradation of natural resources such as land, soil, forests, biodiversity and groundwater, resulting from current unsustainable use patterns are likely to be aggravated due to climate change in the next 25 to 50 years.
13. There are many ways to pursue sustainable development strategies that contribute to mitigation of climate change. A few examples are presented below:-
(a) Adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies in electricity generation, transmission distribution, and end-use can reduce costs and local pollution in addition to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
(b) Shift to renewables, some of which are already cost effective, can enhance sustainable energy supply, can reduce local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
(c) Adoption of forest conservation, reforestation, afforestation and sustainable forest management practices can contribute to conservation of biodiversity, watershed protection, rural employment generation, increased incomes to forest dwellers and carbon sink enhancement.
(d) Efficient, fast and reliable public transport systems such as metro-railways can reduce urban congestion, local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
(e) Adoption of participatory approach to forest management, rural energy, irrigation water management and rural development in general can promote sustained development activities and ensure long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction or carbon sink enhancement.
(f) Rational energy pricing based on long-run-marginal cost principle can level the playing field for renewable, increase the spread of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies, and the economic viability of utility companies, ultimately leading to greenhouse gas emission reduction.
Steps taken bv India
14. India has a very comprehensive framework of legal and institutional mechanisms in the region to respond to the tremendous challenges to the environment it is facing, owing to population growth, poverty and illiteracy augmented by urbanization and industrial development. India is one of the leading developing country in so far as having incorporated into its Constitution the specific provisions for environmental protection. Article 48A of the Constitution of India provides that ‘the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country’. Similarly, Article 51A (g) makes it obligatory for every citizen of India, ‘to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.’
15. Despite the fact that India’s contributions to greenhouse gas emissions are very small, the Government of India has taken many measures to improve the situation in this regard. India has initiated several climate-friendly measures, particularly in the area of renewable energy. It has one of the most active renewable energy programmes besides having a dedicated Ministry for non-conventional energy sources. India had adopted the National Environment Policy 2006, and has also taken many other measures and policy initiatives.
Abatement of Pollution
16. There is a policy for abatement of pollution, which provides multi-pronged strategies in the form of regulations, agreements, fiscal incentives and other measures. Seventeen categories of heavily polluting industries have been identified They are refineries, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, pesticides, tanneries, basic drugs and Pharmaceuticals, dye and dye intermediates, caustic soda, zinc smelter, copper smelter and aluminum smelter.