Environmental 代写:Indian National Action Plan On Climate Change
17. As per its commitment to implement the Montreal Protocol and its Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) phase out programme in India, the Ministry of Environment and Forests has set up the Ozone Cell as a national unit to look after and to render necessary service. The Ministry provides custom/excise duty exemption for ODS phase-out projects and grants duty exemption for new investments with non-ODS technologies. The Reserve Bank of India has issued directions to all financial institutions and commercial banks not to finance new establishments with ODS technology. Licensing system is there to regulate import and export of ODS.
Environment Impact Assessment
18. India has a well-devised Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Programme for incorporating environmental concerns in development process and also in improved decision-making. The programme of EIA was initiated with the appraisal of River Valley Projects. The scope of appraisal was subsequently enlarged to cover other sectors like industry, thermal power, hydroelectric, nuclear mining, construction projects and infrastructure. EIA was made mandatory since January 1994 for thirty-two categories of development activities. To ensure transparency, the status of forest and environmental clearance has been brought out on the official website since February 1999.
19. Some specific Energy Sector initiatives are as follows:-
(a) Introduction of CNG for public and private transport in metropolitan areas.
(b) Improving quality of transportation fuels.
(c) Raising share of public transport, building Delhi Metro and Metro in other cities like Bangalore.
(d) A major bio-diesel programme. Five percent blending of ethanol in petrol- to increase in the next phase.
(e) Increasing forest and tree cover to 25 per cent by 2007 and 33 per cent by 2012.
(f) Electricity for all by 2012 – decentralized power based on local resources.
(g) Cleaner fuels for power generation. Raising thermal efficiency of coal Plants.
(h) National programme on coal washing, in-situ coal gasification, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Coal bed and Mine-mouth methane and Hydrogen energy.
(j) 50,000 MW hydropower initiatives including over 50 per cent from Run of River Operation (ROR) projects to be accomplished by 2012.
Future Response Strategy required for Climate Change in India
20. The most effective response strategy for climate change is poverty alleviation. The specific areas of concern include:-
(b) Water resources.
(e) Extreme weather events.
Measures for mitigating climate change
21. These are as follows:-
(a) Improving energy efficiency & conservation as well setting up a Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
(b) Power .sector reforms.
(c) Promoting hydro and renewable energy.
(d) Promotion of clean coal technologies.
(e) Coal washing & efficient utilization of coal.
(f) Afforestation and conservation of forests.
(g) Reduction of gas flaring.
(h) Cleaner and lesser carbon intensive fuel for transport.
(j) Encouraging Mass Rapid Transport systems.
(k) Environmental quality management and improving energy efficiency.
Suggested course of action for mitigation
22. These are as follows:-
(a) Intensify Current legal regime (“Energy Conservation Act”) and promotional programmes for supply/demand side energy efficiency.
(b) Intensify utility initiatives to promote energy efficiency actions by end users (Demand side management) especially in agriculture, domestic & commercial sectors.
(c) Undertake national/collaborative research programme in Mission Mode for advanced biomass based technologies – current sustainable biomass potential is C.500 million tonnes coal equivalent per annum.
(d) Further promote CDM implementation in PSUs, Central and States/UT Govt/Municipalities. Planning and Investment for Urban mass transport.
(e) Intensify afforestation for carbon sequestration.
23. India’s expenditure on adaptation as a percentage of total expenditure has suddenly increased from 4.16% in 2004-05 to 8.23% in 2005-06 and 10.62% in 2006-07 and as a percentage of GDP, it has suddenly increased from 0.88% in 2004-05 to 1.61% in 2005-06 and 2.17% in 2006-07. Major components of adaptation will include:-
(a) Crop improvement & research.
(b) Drought proofing & flood control.
(c) Health improvement and prevention of disease.
(d) Risk financing.
(e) Disaster management.
(f) Forest conservation.
(g) Poverty alleviation and livelihood preservation.
Suggested course of action for adaptation to climate change
24. These include the following:-
(a) Intensify poverty alleviation, especially in regions prone to high climate variability and extreme weather events.
(b) Intensify research into high yielding heat and drought resistant crop varieties and promote irrigation (local, regional, and national).
(c) Promote afforestation for hydrological benefits. Intensify programs for known climate variability in all key sectors, including coastal management/cyclone protection.
(d) Embody climate impacts concerns in all design codes for infrastructure Projects.